CUS  Vol.3 No.4 , December 2015
Urban Planning in Africa: Which Alternative for Poor Cities? The Case of Koudougou in Burkina Faso
Abstract: The efforts made to plan cities in emerging and developing countries are confronted to multiple issues, especially in small and middle sized cities which can be considered as poor through several criteria: socio-economic level of majority of population; low levels of public investments, weak quality of local administration, and large dependence of external donors. Following several authors, one of the main reason is that philosophy and methods of urban planning applied to these specific contexts are directly reproduced from a Western tradition which doesn’t correspond to the local and national context in terms of needs, priorities and organization of the financial resources. The case of Koudougou, a medium sized city in one of the poorest countries in the world, Burkina Faso, will give the opportunity to understand concretely how these deficiencies are translated in an urban context, and foresee, more globally, alternative models of urban planning better adapted to poor cities, whose number of inhabitants is growing steadily.
Cite this paper: Bolay, J. (2015) Urban Planning in Africa: Which Alternative for Poor Cities? The Case of Koudougou in Burkina Faso. Current Urban Studies, 3, 413-431. doi: 10.4236/cus.2015.34033.

[1]   Agboda, B., & Watson, V. (2013). Who Will Plan Africa’s Cities? London: Africa Research Institute.

[2]   Ascher, F. (2000). Ces événements nous dépassent, feignons d’en être les organisateurs; essai sur la société contemporaine. Paris: L’aube.

[3]   Bayat, A. (2004). Globalization and the Politics of the Informals in the Global South. In A. Roy, & N. Alsayad (Eds.), Urban Informality. Transnational perspectives from the Middle East, Latin America and South Asia (pp. 79-102). Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford: Lexington Books.

[4]   Bayili, P., & Aweh, M. (2005). Profil du secteur urbain du Burkina Faso, rapport national, contribution aux politiques de réduction de la pauvreté urbaine en Afrique et dans les pays arabes. Nairobi, Dakar: UN-HABITAT & IAGU.

[5]   Benjamin, N., & Mbaye, A. A. (2012). Les entrerprises informelles de l’Afrique de l’Ouest francophone. Paris, New York: Agence Française de Développement, World Bank.

[6]   Biehler, A. (2006). Renouveau urbain et marginalisation. Le cas d’habitants du centre-ville de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Revue Tiers Monde, 1, 57-78.

[7]   Bolay, J.-C. (2006). Slums and Urban Development: Questions on Society and Globalization. The European Journal of Development Research, 18, 284-298.

[8]   Bolay, J.-C. (2007). Slums Medium-Sized Cities: Poles of Regional Development in Burkina Faso. UrbanNews, 15, 2-3.

[9]   Bolay, J.-C. (2011). Une Afrique urbaine au-delà de la survie–vers une planification à la hauteur des enjeux. In La planification territoriale en Afrique, comment répondre aux enjeux? Rheinfelden, CH: Collage, Périodique d’urbanisme, d’aménagement et d’environnement. FSU.

[10]   Bolay, J.-C., & Rabinovich, A. (2004). Intermediate Cities in Latin America, Risks and Opportunities of Coherent Urban Development. Cities, 21, 407-421.

[11]   Bolay, J.-C., Rabinovich, A., de la Porte, C. A., Ruiz, L., Unda, M., Vivero, M., Serrano, T., & Nieves, G. (2004). Interfase urbano-rural en Ecuador. Hacia un desarrollo territoral integrado. Lausanne: Cahier du LaSUR 5, LaSUR, EPFL.

[12]   Brenner, N. (2009). What Is Critical Urban Theory? City, 13, 2-3.

[13]   Brenner, N., & Schmid, C. (2014). The “Urban Age” in Question. In N. Brenner (Ed.), Implosions/Explosions. Towards a Study of Planetary Urbanization (pp. 310-337). Berlin: Jovis Verlag.

[14]   Campbell, T. (2012). Beyond Smart Cities. How Cities Network, Learn, and Innovate. London, New York: Earthscan.

[15]   Castells, M. (1969). Théorie et idéologie en sociologie urbaine. Sociologie et Sociétés, 1-2, 171-192.

[16]   Chenal, J. (2013). Modèles de planification de l’espace urbain. La ville ouest-africaine. Geneva: MétisPresse.

[17]   Choay, F. (1999). De la ville à l’urbain. Urbanisme, 309, 6-8.

[18]   de Roo, G., & Silva E. A. (Eds.) (2010). A Planner’s Encounter with Complexity. Aldershot: Ashgate.

[19]   Devas, C. N., Grant, U., Mitlin, D., Rakodi, C., & Satterthwaite, D. (2001). Urban Governance and Poverty: Lessons from a Study of 10 Cities. London: IDD, University of Birmingham/DFID.

[20]   Edensor, T., & Jayne, M. (2012). Urban Theory beyond the West. A World of Cities. London & New York: Routledge.

[21]   Fourchard, L. (2001). De la ville coloniale à la cour africaine: Espaces, pouvoirs et sociétés à Ouagadougou et à Bobo-Diolasso (Haute-Volta) fin XIXe siècle-1960. Paris: L’Harmattan.

[22]   Guigma, L. (2010). Audits urbains municipaux. Commune de Koudougou. Ouagadougou, B. F.: Ministère de l’Administration Territoriale et de la Décentralisation. Direction Générale des Collectivités Territoriales.

[23]   Harrison, P. (2006). On the Edge of Reason: Planning and Urban Future in Africa. Urban Studies, 43, 319-335.

[24]   Harrison, P., Todes, A., & Watson, V. (2008). Planning and Transformation. Learning from the Post-Apartheid Experience. London, New York: Routledge.

[25]   Harvey, D. (2012). Rebel Cities. From the Right to the City to the Urban Revolution. London & New York: Verso.

[26]   Hilgers, M. (2005). Du quartier au secteur, l’évolution des limites urbaines au Burkina Faso. Espaces et sociétés, 122, 67-85.

[27]   Hilgers, M. (2009). Une ethnographie à l’échelle de la ville: Urbanité, histoire et reconnaissance à Koudougou (Burkina Faso). Paris: Karthala.

[28]   International Labour Organization (ILO) (2014). Facilitating Transitions from the Informal to the Formal Economy. International Labour Conference (ILC). 103rd Session, Geneva: ILO.

[29]   Jaffe, E. (2011). Improving Urban Planning in Africa. An Interview with Nancy Odentaal, Project Coordinator of African Planning Schools. Citylab, 22 November 2011.

[30]   Judd, D. R. (2011). Theorizing the City. In D. R. Judd, & D. Simpson (Eds.), The City Revisited (pp. 3-20). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minneapolis Press.

[31]   Kessides, C. (2006). The Urban Transition in Sub-Saharan Africa. Implication for Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction. Washington DC: Cities Alliance & World Bank.

[32]   Knox, P. L., & Mayer, H. (2009). Small Town Sustainability. Economic, Social, and Environmental Innovation. Basel, Boston, Berlin: Birkhaüser.

[33]   Lefebvre, H. (1970). La révolution urbaine. Paris: Gallimard.

[34]   Ministère de l’Habitat et de l’Urbanisme (2011). Termes de références des schémas directeurs d’aménagement et d’urbanisme. Koudougou. 2 volumes. Ouagadougou: MHU.

[35]   Ministère de l’Habitat et de l’Urbanisme (2012). Schéma directeur d’aménagement et d’urbanisme (SDAU) de la Ville de Koudougou (Horizon 2030).Ouagadougou: MHU.

[36]   Montgomery, M. R., Stren, R., Cohen, B., & Reed, H. E. (2004). Cities Transformed. Demographic Change and Its Implications in the Developing World. London: Earthscan.

[37]   Municipality of Koudougou (2010). Municipal Urban Audits. Koudougou: Municipality of Koudougou.

[38]   Myers, G. (2011). African Cities. Alternative Visions or Urban Theory and Practice. London: Zed Books.

[39]   Nunes Silva, C. (2015). Urban Planning in Sub-Saharan Africa. Colonial and Post-Colonial Planning Cultures. London, New York: Routledge.

[40]   Obrist, B., Arlt, V., & Macamo, E. (2013). Living the City in Africa: Processes of Intervention and Intervention. Münster: LIT Verlag.

[41]   OECD (2006). Territorial Reviews: Competitive Cities in the Global Economy. Paris: OECD.

[42]   Paquot, T., Lussault, M., & Body-Gendrot, S. (2000). La ville et l’urbain, l’état des savoirs. Paris: La Découverte.

[43]   Roy, A. (2004). Transnational Trespassings. The Geopolitics of Urban Informality. In A. Roy, & N. Alsayad (Eds.), Urban Informality. Transnational Perspectives from the Middle East, Latin America and South Asia (pp. 289-317). Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford: Lexington Books.

[44]   Roy, A. (2005). Urban Informality: Toward an Epistemology of Planning. Journal of the American Planning Association, 71, 147-158.

[45]   Scott, A. J., & Storper, M. (2015). The Nature of Cities: The Scope and Limits of Urban Theory. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 39, 1-15.

[46]   Söderström, O., Dupuis, B., & Leu, P. (2013). Translocal Urbanism: How Ouagadougou Strategically Decentralized Cooperation. In B. Obrist, V. Arlt, & E. Macamo (Eds.), Living the City in Africa: Processes of Intervention and Intervention (pp. 99-117). Münster: LIT Verlag.

[47]   Tacoli, C., McGranahan, G., & Satterthwaite, D. (2015). Urbanisation, Rural-Urban Migration and Urban Poverty. London: IIED.

[48]   Tannerfeldt, G., & Ljung, P. (2006). More Urban Less Poor. An Introduction to Urban Development and Management. London: Sida & Earthscan.

[49]   Tranberg Hansen, K., & Vaa, M. (2004). Reconsidering Informality: Perspective from Urban Africa. Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.

[50]   UN-Habitat (United Nations Human Settlements Programme) (2007). Profil urbain national du Burkina Faso 2004-2005. Nairobi: UN-Habitat.

[51]   UN-Habitat (United Nations Human Settlements Programme) (2008). State of the World’s Cities 2010/2011—Cites for All: Bridging the Urban Divide. Nairobi: UN-Habitat.

[52]   UN-Habitat (United Nations Human Settlements Programme) (2014). The State of African Cities. Re-Imagining Sustainable Urban Transitions. London: Earthscan.

[53]   United Nations (2014). United Nations Programs on Global Geospatial Information Management. New York: United Nations.

[54]   Van Dijk, M. P. (1986). Burkina Faso. Le secteur informel de Ouagadougou. Paris: L’Harmattan.

[55]   Watson, V. (2009). Seeing from the South: Refocusing Urban Planning on the Globe’s Central Issues. Urban Studies, 46, 2259-2275.

[56]   Woltjer, J. (2000). Consensus Planning: The Relevance of Communicative Planning Theory in Dutch Infrastructure Development. Aldershot: Ashgate.

[57]   World Bank (2002). Upgrading of Low Income Settlements. Country Assessment Report. Burkina Faso. Washington DC: World Bank.

[58]   Wyly, E. (2012). Theories of Urban System Development. Introduction to Urban Geography. Vancouver: University of British Columbia.

[59]   Yftachel, O. (2006) Ethnocracy, Land and Identity Politics in Israel/Palestine. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.