AS  Vol.6 No.12 , December 2015
Effects of Feeding Programs Based on One or Two Milk Replacer Daily Meals on Growth, Solid Feed Intake and Rumen Fermentation and Development of Dairy Calves
Sixteen Holstein calves were used to study the effects of two feeding programs (FP) on growth, intake, rumen development and ruminal metabolism from birth to weaning. Two feeding programs based on milk replacer (MR) were tested: a once a day (OAD) MR (200 g/L) distribution vs. a standard twice a day (TAD) MR (125 g/L) distribution. All calves received water, wheat straw and a starter concentrate ad libitum. Four calves per group were slaughtered at weaning and rumen epithelium from the ventral sac was sampled for papillae (RP) density. Results showed that the FP had no effect on body weight of calves and total feed intake. From day 42 to day 56, ruminal pH was lower (P = 0.036) and ruminal oxydo-reducing potential was higher (P = 0.001) in OAD than TAD calves. Ruminal total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations did not significantly differ between FP. From day 21 to day 63, butyrate ruminal concentration was significantly higher in OAD than TAD calves (5.17 vs 3.95 mmol/L). This probably explained the higher development of RP in calves fed once daily. Finally, the tested feeding system based on a once daily MR distribution affects the concentrate feeding pattern of calves.

Cite this paper
Julien, C. , Bayourthe, C. , Lacroux, C. and Enjalbert, F. (2015) Effects of Feeding Programs Based on One or Two Milk Replacer Daily Meals on Growth, Solid Feed Intake and Rumen Fermentation and Development of Dairy Calves. Agricultural Sciences, 6, 1428-1440. doi: 10.4236/as.2015.612139.
[1]   Soberon, F., Raffrenato, E., Everett, R.W. and Van Amburgh, M.E. (2012) Preweaning Milk Replacer Intake and Effects on Long-Term Productivity of Dairy Calves. Journal of Dairy Science, 95, 783-793.

[2]   Diaz, M.C., Van Amburgh, M.E., Smith, J.M., Kelse, J.M. and Hutten, E.L. (2001) Composition of Growth of Holstein Calves fed Milk Replacer from Birth to 105-Kilogram Body Weight. Journal of Dairy Science, 84, 830-842.

[3]   Jasper, J. and Weary, D.M. (2002) Effects of ad Libitum Milk Intake on Dairy Calves. Journal of Dairy Science, 85, 3054-3058.

[4]   Terré, A., Devant, M. and Bach, A. (2007) Effect of Level of Milk Replacer Fed to Holstein Calves on Performance during the Preweaning Period and Starter Digestibility at Weaning. Livestock Science, 110, 82-88.

[5]   Kehoe, S.I., Dechow, C.D. and Heinrichs, A.J. (2007) Effects of Weaning Age and Milk Feeding Frequency on Dairy Calf Growth, Health and Rumen Parameters. Livestock Science, 110, 267-272.

[6]   Kmicikewycz, A.D., da Silva, D.N.L., Linn, J.G. and Litherland, N.B. (2013) Effects of Milk Replacer Program Fed 2 or 4 Times Daily on Nutrient Intake and Calf Growth. Journal of Dairy Science, 96, 1125-1134.

[7]   McCullough, S.A., Dennis, T.S., Fraley, E., Houin, B. and Nennich, T.D. (2013) Effect of Milk Feeding and Weaning Age on Growth and Intake of Dairy Calves. Journal of Animal Science, 91, 221.

[8]   Galton, D.M. and Brakel, W.J. (1976) Influence of Feeding Milk Replacer Once versus Twice Daily on Growth, Organ Measurements, and Mineral Content of Tissues. Journal of Dairy Science, 59, 944-948.

[9]   Anonymous (198) Arrêté du 18 avril 1988 fixant les conditions d’attribution de l’autorisation d’expérimenter. Journal Officiel de la République Française, 5608-5610.

[10]   Lukas, M., Dekum, K.H., Rave, G., Friedel, K. and Susenbeth, A. (2005) Relationship between Fecal Crude Protein Concentration and Diet Organic Matter Digestibility in Cattle. Journal of Animal Science, 83, 1332-1344.

[11]   Lohakare, J.D., van de Sand, H., Gerlach, K., Hosseini, A., Mielenz, M., Sauerwein, H., Pries, M. and Südekum, K.H. (2012) Effects of Limited Concentrate Feeding on Growth and Blood and Serum Variables, and on Nutrient Digestibility and Gene Expression of Hepatic Gluconeogenic Enzymes in Dairy Calves. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 96, 25-36.

[12]   Rey, M., Enjalbert, F. and Monteils, V. (2012) Establishment of Ruminal Enzyme Activities and Fermentation Capacity in Dairy Calves from Birth through Weaning. Journal of Dairy Science, 95, 1500-1512.

[13]   Playne, M.J. (1985) Determination of Ethanol, Volatile Fatty Acids, Lactic Acid and Succinic Acid in Fermentation Liquids by Gas Chromatography. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 36, 638-644.

[14]   Marden, J.P., Julien, C., Monteils, V., Auclair, E., Moncoulon, R. and Bayourthe, C. (2008) How Does Live Yeast Differ from Sodium Bicarbonate to Stabilize Ruminal pH in High-Yielding Dairy Cows? Journal of Dairy Science, 91, 3528-3535.

[15]   Krom, M.D. (1980) Spectrophotometric Determination of Ammonia: A Study of a Modified Berthelot Reaction Using Salicylate and Dichloroisocyanurate. Analyst, 105, 305-316.

[16]   Van Soest, P.J. and Wine, R.H. (1967) Use of Detergent in the Analysis of Fibrous Feeds. IV. Determination of Plant Cell-Wall Constituents. Journal of the Association of Analytical Chemist, 50, 50-55.

[17]   Terré, M., Tejero, C. and Bach, A. (2009) Long-Term Effects on Heifer Performance of an Enhanced-Growth Feeding Programme Applied during the Preweaning Period. Journal of Dairy Research, 76, 331-339.

[18]   Morrison, S.J., Wicks, H.C.F., Carson, A.F., Fallon, R.J., Twigge, J., Kilpatrick, D.J. and Watson, S. (2012) The Effect of Calf Nutrition on the Performance of Dairy Herd Replacements. Animal, 6, 909-919.

[19]   Stanley, C.C., Williams, C.C., Jenny, B.F., Fernandez, J.M., Bateman Ii, H.G., Nipper, W.A., Lovejoy, J.C., Gantt, D.T. and Goodier, G.E. (2002) Effects of Feeding Milk Replacer Once versus Twice Daily on Glucose Metabolism in Holstein and Jersey Calves. Journal of Dairy Science, 85, 2335-2343.

[20]   Heinrichs, J. (2005) Rumen Development in the Dairy Calf. Advances in Dairy Technology, 17, 179-187.

[21]   Kosiorowska, A., Puggaard, L., Hedemann, M.S., Sehested, J., Jensen, S.K., Kristensen, N.B., Kuropka, P., Marycz, K. and Vestergaard, M. (2011) Gastrointestinal Development of Dairy Calves Fed Low- or High-Starch Concentrate at Two Milk Allowances. Animal, 5, 211-219.

[22]   Warner, R.G. and Flatt, W.P. (1965) Anatomical Development of the Ruminant Stomach. In: Dougherty, R.W., Ed., Physiology of Digestion in the Ruminant, Butterworths, Washington DC, 24-38.

[23]   Warner, R.G., Flatt, W.P. and Loosli, J.K. (1956) Dietary Factors Influencing the Development of the Ruminant Stomach. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 4, 788-792.

[24]   Kristensen, N.B., Sehested, J., Jensen, S.K. and Vestergaard, M. (2007) Effect of Milk Allowance on Concentrate Intake, Ruminal Environment, and Ruminal Development in Milk-Fed Holstein Calves. Journal of Dairy Science, 90, 4346-4355.

[25]   Nocek, J.E., Heald, C.W. and Polan, C.E. (1984) Influence of Ration Physical Form and Nitrogen Availability on Ruminal Morphology of Growing Bull Calves. Journal of Dairy Science, 67, 334-343.

[26]   Greenwood, R.H., Morrill, J.L., Titgemeyer, E.C. and Kennedy, G.A. (1997) A New Method of Measuring Diet Abrasion and Its Effect on the Development of the Forestomach. Journal of Dairy Science, 80, 2534-2541.

[27]   Stobo, I.J.F., Roy, J.H.B. and Gaston, H.J. (1966) Rumen Development in the Calf. 1. The Effect of Diets Containing Different Proportions of Concentrates to Hay on Rumen Development. British Journal of Nutrition, 20, 171-188.

[28]   Sander, E.G., Warner, R.G., Harrison, H.N. and Loosli, J.K. (1959) The Stimulatory Effect of Sodium Butyrate and Sodium Propionate on the Development of Rumen Mucosa in the Young Calf. Journal of Dairy Science, 42, 1600-1605.

[29]   Tamate, H., McGilliard, A.D., Jacobson, N.L. and Getty, R. (1962) Effect of Various Dietaries on the Anatomical Development of the Stomach in the Calf. Journal of Dairy Science, 45, 408-420.

[30]   Baldwin, R.L. and McLeod, K.R. (2000) Effects of Diet Forage: Concentrate Ratio and Metabolizable Energy Intake on Isolated Rumen Epithelial Cell Metabolism in Vitro. Journal of Animal Science, 78, 771-783.

[31]   Julien, C., Marden, J.P., Troegeler-Meynadier, A. and Bayourthe, C. (2014) Methodology Article: Can Ruminal Reducing Power Assessed in Batch Cultures Be Comparable to in Vivo Measurements? Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation, 4, 80-86.

[32]   Julien, C., Marden, J.P., Bonnefont, C., Moncoulon, R., Auclair, E., Monteils, V. and Bayourthe, C. (2010) Effects of Varying Proportions of Concentrates on Ruminal-Reducing Power and Bacterial Community Structure in Dry Dairy Cows Fed Hay-Based Diets. Animal, 4, 1641-1646.

[33]   Julien, C., Marden, J.P., Auclair, E., Moncoulon, R., Cauquil, L., Peyraud, J.L. and Bayourthe, C. (2015) Interaction between Live Yeast and Dietary Rumen Degradable Protein Level: Effects on Diet Utilization in Early-Lactating Dairy Cows. Agricultural Science, 6, 1-13.

[34]   Monteils, V., Rey, M., Cauquil, L., Troegeler-Meynadier, A., Silberberg, M. and Combes, S. (2011) Random Changes in the Heifer Rumen in Bacterial Community Structure, Physico-Chemical and Fermentation Parameters, and in Vitro Fiber Degradation. Livestock Science, 141, 104-112.

[35]   Baldwin, R.L. and Emery, R.S. (1960) The Oxidation-Reduction Potential of Rumen Contents. Journal of Dairy Science, 43, 506-511.