OJGas  Vol.5 No.12 , December 2015
Prevalence of HBs Antigen, and HCV and HIV Antibodies in a Young Male Population in Cameroon
Introduction: According to WHO estimates, 57% of cases of liver cirrhosis and 78% of primary liver carcinoma are caused by a hepatitis B or C virus. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of these diseases and HIV among a young male population, according to region. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted from 17 February to 31 March 2014 in the ten administrative regions of Cameroon. The study included male subjects of Cameroonian nationality aged at least 18 and at most 23, and living in the regions concerned. It excluded subjects that did not match the age, gender, and nationality criteria. For each subject, 10 ml of blood was collected in a dry tube. After centrifugation at 3000 RPM for 5 minutes, the serum was collected for the detection of viral infections. For subjects that tested positive, a confirmatory test was conducted. Results: In total, 4367 subjects were selected, with an average age of 20.46 (+/- 1.17) years. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus stood at 13.01% (with 95% CI: 12.03% - 14.05%). That of viral hepatitis C was 0.30% (95% CI: 0.17% - 0.52%). Co-infection with hepatitis B and C viruses was 0.05% (95% CI: 0.01% - 0.18%). The prevalence of HIV infection was 1.01% (95% CI: 0.74% - 1.36%). Conclusion: The overall prevalence of HBsAg in the population of young males is high. It tallies with the early vertical and horizontal modes of transmission that prevail in our environment.

Cite this paper
Noah, D. , Andoulo, F. , Essoh, B. , Ayissi, G. , Bagnaka, S. and Sida, M. (2015) Prevalence of HBs Antigen, and HCV and HIV Antibodies in a Young Male Population in Cameroon. Open Journal of Gastroenterology, 5, 185-190. doi: 10.4236/ojgas.2015.512028.
[1]   Matthews, P.C., Geretti, A.M., Goulder, P.J. and Klenerman, P. (2014) Epidemiology and Impact of HIV Coinfection with Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Viruses in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Clinical Virology, 61, 20-33.

[2]   Koanga Mogtomo, M.L., Louandji Fomekong, S., Fotso Kuate, H. and Ngono Ngane, A. (2009) Détection des agents infectieux dans les banques de sang de Douala [Detection of Infectious Agents in Blood Banks in Douala] (1995-2004). Cahiers d’études et de recherches francophones/Santé, 19, 3-8.

[3]   Garrigue, G., Merlin, M., Durand, J.P., Josse, R., Kollo, B., Trepo, C. and Bemba, D.K. (1985) Prevalence of Markers of Viral Hepatitis B in Northern Cameroon. Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales, 78, 883-889.

[4]   Foupouapouognigni, Y., Sadeuh Mba, S.A., Betsem à Betsem, E., Rousset, D., Froment, A., Gessain, A., et al. (2011) Hepatitis B and C Virus Infections in the Three Pygmy Groups in Cameroon. Journal of Clinical Micro-biology, 49, 737-740.

[5]   Laurent, C., Bourgeois, A., Mpoudi, M., Butel, C., Mpoudi-Ngolé, E. and Delaporte, E. (2007) HIV and Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection, Cameroon. Emerging Infectious Disease, 13, 514-516.

[6]   Rey-Cuille, M.A., Njouom, R., Bekondi, C., Seck, A., Gody, C., Bata, P., et al. (2013) Hepatitis B Virus Exposure during Childhood in Cameroon, Central African Republic and Senegal after the Integration of HBV Vaccine in the Expanded Program on Immunization. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 32, 1110-1115.

[7]   Ducancelle, A., Abgueguen, P., Birguel, J., Mansour, W., Pivert, A., Le Guillou-Guillemette, H., et al. (2013) High Endemicity and Low Molecular Diversity of Hepatitis B Virus Infections in Pregnant Women in a Rural District of North Cameroon. PLoS One, 8, e80346.

[8]   Fomulu, N.J., Morfaw, F.L.I., Torimiro, J.N., Nana, P., Mve Koh, V. and Takang, W. (2013) Prevalence, Correlates and Pattern of Hepatitis B among Antenatal Clinic Attenders in Yaounde-Cameroon: Is Perinatal Transmission of HBV Neglected in Cameroon? BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, 13, 158.

[9]   Ngo Sack, F., Noah Noah, D., Zouhairatou, H. and Mbanya, D. (2013) Portage de l’antigène HBs et des anticorps anti-VHC chez le drépanocytaire homozygote à l′Hopital Central de Yaoundé [HBsAg and Anti-HCV Antibody Carrier Rates Among Homozygous Sickle Cell Patients at the Yaounde Central Hospital]. The Pan African Medical Journal, 14, 40.

[10]   Kurbanov, F., Tanaka, Y., Fujiwara, K., Sugauchi, F., Mbanya, D., Zekeng, L., et al. (2005) A New Subtype (Subgenotype) Ac (A3) of Hepatitis B Virus and Recombination between Genotypes A and E in Cameroon. Journal of General Virology, 86, 2047-2056.

[11]   Ndumbe, P.M., Atchou, G., Biwole, M., Lobe, V. and Ayuk-Takem, J. (1993) Infections among Pygmies in the Eastern Province of Cameroon. Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 182, 281-284.

[12]   Desenclos, J.C. (2003) L’infection par le virus de l’hépatite C dans le monde: Importance en santé publique, modes de transmission et perspectives [Hepatitis C Virus Infection in the World: Importance in Public Health Care, Modes of Transmission, and Prospects.]. Virologie, 7, 177-191.

[13]   Madhava, V., Burgess, C. and Drucker, E. (2002) Epidemiology of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 2, 293-302.

[14]   http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(02)00264-5

[15]   Noubiap, J.J.N., Joko, W.Y.A., Nansseu, J.R.N., Tene, U.G. and Siaka, C. (2013) Sero-Epidemiology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B and C Viruses, and Syphilis Infections among First-Time Blood Donors in Edea, Cameroon. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 17, e832-e837.

[16]   Fouelifack Ymele, F., Keugoung, B., Fouedjio, J.H., Kouam, N., Mendibi, S. and Dongtsa Mabou, J. (2012) High Rates of Hepatitis B and C and HIV Infections among Blood Donors in Cameroon: A Proposed Blood Screening Algorithm for Blood Donors in Resource-Limited Settings. Journal of Blood Transfusion, 2012, Article ID: 458372.

[17]   Fritzsche, C., Becker, F., Hemmer, C.J., Riebold, D., Klammt, S., Hufert, F., Akam, W., Kinge, T.N. and Reisinger, E.C. (2013) Hepatitis B and C: Neglected Diseases among Health Care Workers in Cameroon. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 107, 158-164.

[18]   Dhumeaux, D. (2014) Prise en Charge des personnes infectées par les virus de l’hépatite B ou de l’hépatite C [Management of Persons Infected with Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C Virus]. 2014 Report under the Supervision of the ANRS and AFEF 2014, 1-18.