Health  Vol.7 No.12 , December 2015
Empathy Levels of Dental Students of Central America and the Caribbean
Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study is to check whether there are differences in the distribution of empathy levels in dental students from nine faculties of dentistry Colombia, Panama, Costa Rica and Dominican Republic. Methods: The levels of empathy and matrices of empathy construct matrices are estimated dental students by using the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy, the Spanish version for students (S version) culturally validated in Colombia, Panama, Costa Rica and Dominican Republic measured by arbitrator criteria. Cronbach α is estimated. Data of empathic orientation of the studied factors between faculties are analyzed and compared by ANOVA and Duncan test and matrices of empathy construct using discriminant analysis. Results: We find that there are differences in levels of empathy between universities, courses, gender and interaction between the Dental Faculty (University) and Course. The comparison between matrices shows unexplained variances and differences observed between the levels of empathy in student populations. Conclusions: Variability in empathy is observed in the studied factors and among student populations. The variability is an empirical finding, but is not possible in this work, to explain why.
Cite this paper: Díaz-Narváez, V. , Coronado, A. , Bilbao, J. , González, F. , Padilla, M. , Howard, M. , Silva, G. , Arboleda, J. , Bullen, M. , Utsman, R. , Fajardo, E. , Alonso, L. , Cervantes, M. (2015) Empathy Levels of Dental Students of Central America and the Caribbean. Health, 7, 1678-1686. doi: 10.4236/health.2015.712182.

[1]   Hojat, M., Gonella, J.S., Nasca, T.J., Mangione, S., Vergare, M. and Magee, M. (2002) Physician Empathy: Definition, Components, Measurement and Relationship to Gender and Specialty. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 1563-1569.

[2]   Morales, S. (2012) Study of Empathy Level and Achievement Motivation in Students of Dentistry in University of Concepcion. Revista Educación en Ciencias de la Salud, 9, 121-125.

[3]   Bilbao, J., Alcócer, A., Salazar, G., Rivera, I., Zamorano, A. and Díaz-Narváez, V.P. (2013) Measurement of Empathetic Orientation in Dentistry Students of Fundación Universitaria San Martín. Puerto Colombia (Atlántico, Colombia). (Atlántico, Colombia). Salud Uninorte (Barranquilla), 29, 34-41.

[4]   Kane, G.C., Gotto, J.L., Mangione, S., West, S. and Hojat, M. (2007) Jefferson Scale of Patient’s Perceptions Empathy: Preliminary Psychometric Data 2007. Croatian Medical Journal, 48, 81-86.

[5]   Díaz-Narváez, V.P., Alonso, L.M., Caro, S.E., Silva, M.G., Arboleda, J., Bilbao, J.L. and Iglesias, J. (2014) Empathic Orientation among Medical Students from Three Universities in Barranquilla, Colombia and One University in the Dominican Republic. Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría, 112, 41-49.

[6]   Stephenson, A., Higgs, R. and Sugarman, J. (2001) Teaching Professional Development in Medical Schools. The Lancet, 357, 867-870.

[7]   Alcorta-Garza, A., González-Guerrero, J.F., Tavitas-Herrera, S.E., Rodríguez-Lara, F.J. and Hojat, M. (2005) Validation of the Scale of Empathy Medical Jefferson Medical Students in Mexico. Salud Mental, 28, 57-63.

[8]   Hojat, M., Mangione, S., Kane, G.C. and Gonnella, J.S. (2005) Relationship between Scores of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Emphaty (JSPE) and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Medical Teacher, 27, 625-628.

[9]   Roh, M., Hahm, B., Lee, D. and Suh, D. (2010) Evaluation of Empathy among Korean Medical Students: A Cross-Seccional Study Using the Korean Version of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 22, 167-171.

[10]   Kataoka, H., Koide, N., Ochi, K., Hojat, M. and Gonnella, J. (2009) Measurement of Empathy among Japanese Medical Student. Psychometrics and Score Differences by Gender and Level of Medical Education. Academic Medicine, 84, 1192-1197.

[11]   Silva, M.G., Arboleda, J. and Díaz-Narváez, V.P. (2013) Empathic Orientation Dental Students from the Universidad Central Del Este. Odontoestomatología, 15, 24-33.

[12]   Díaz-Narváez, V.P. (2009) Scientific Research Methodology and Biostatistics for Professionals and Students of Health Sciences. 2ed, RiL Editores, Santiago.

[13]   Erazo, A.M., Alonso, L.M., Rivera, I., Zamorano, A. and Díaz-Narváez, V.P. (2012) Measuring Empathic Orientation Dental Students Barranquilla Metropolitan University (Colombia). Revista Salud Uninorte, 28, 354-363.

[14]   Sánchez, L., Padilla, M., Rivera, I., Zamorano, A. and Díaz-Narváez, V.P. (2013) Evaluation of Empathetic Orientation in Odontology Students. Educación Médica Superior, 27, 216-225.

[15]   Howard, M., Navarro, S., Rivera, I., Zamorano, A. and Díaz-Narváez, V.P. (2013) Measuring the Level of Empathic Orientation in the Student of the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Costa Rica. Revista Odovtos, 15, 21-26.

[16]   Rivera, I., Arratia, R., Zamorano, A. and Díaz-Narváez, V.P. (2011) Evaluación del nivel de orientación empática en estudiantes de Odontología. Salud Uninorte (Barranquilla, Colombia), 27, 63-72.

[17]   Leyva, Y.E. (2011) A Review of the Construct Validity of Criterion-Referenced Tests. Perfiles Educativos, 33, 131-154.

[18]   Cervantes, V. (2005) Interpretations of Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient. Avances en Medición, 3, 9-28.

[19]   Oviedo, H.C. and Campo-Arias, A. (2005) An Approach to the Use of Cronbach’s Alfa. Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría, 34, 572-580.

[20]   Streiner, D.L. (2003) Starting at the Beginning: An Introduction to Coefficient Alpha and Internal Consistency. Journal of Personality Assessment, 80, 99-103.

[21]   Shapiro, S.S. and Wilk, M.B. (1965) An Analysis of Variance Test for Normality (Complete Samples). Biometrika, 52, 591-611.

[22]   Hair, J.F., Anderson, R.E., Tatham, R.L. and Black, W.C. (2001) Multivariate Analysis. Prentice-Hall, Madrid.

[23]   Frías, M.D., Llobell, J.P. and García, J. (2000) Size of Treatment Effect and Statistical Significance. Psicothema, 2, 236-240.

[24]   Levy, J.P. and Varela, J. (2003) Multivariate Analysis for the Social Sciences. Pearson Prentice-Hall, Madrid, 249-257.

[25]   Visauta, B. (1998) Statistical Analysis with SPSS: Vol. II. McGraw-Hill, Madrid, 135-137.

[26]   Palacios, S. (2007) Development and Validation of the Scale of Values Domains Television (DETV). Revista Investigación en Educación, 25, 403-420.

[27]   Silva, H., Rivera, I., Zamorano, A. and Díaz-Narváez, V.P. (2013) Evaluation of Empathetic Orientation in Dentistry Students of Finis Terrae University in Santiago, Chile. Revista Clínica de Periodoncia, Implantología y Rehabilitación Oral, 6, 130-133.

[28]   Carrasco, D., Bustos, A. and Díaz, V. (2012) Empathetic Orientation of Chilean Dental Students. Revista Estoma-tológica Herediana, 22, 145-151.

[29]   Oviedo, M. (2011) Empathy Training of Students in the Faculty of Dentistry at the University of Carabobo. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 158.

[30]   Alonso, L.M., Caro, S.E., Erazo, A.M. and Díaz-Narváez, V.P. (2013) Evaluación de la orientación empática en estudiantes de medicina de la Universidad del Norte. Barranquilla (Colombia). Revista Salud Uninorte, 29, 22-33.

[31]   Rojas-Serey, A.M., Castaneda-Barthelemiez, S. and Parraguez-Infiesta, R.A. (2009) Empathetic Orientation of the Physical Therapist’s Students from Two Schools of Chile. Educación Médica, 12, 103-109.

[32]   Chen, D., Lew, R., Hershman, W. and Orlander, J. (2007) A Cross-Sectional Measurement of Medical Student Empathy. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22, 1434-1438.

[33]   Bellini, L. and Shea, J. (2005) Mood Change and Empathy Decline Persist during Three Years of Internal Medicine Training. Academic Medicine, 80, 164-167.

[34]   Chen, J., LaLopa, J. and Dang, D. (2008) Impact of Patient Empathy Modeling on Pharmacy Students Caring for the Underserved. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 72, Article 40.

[35]   Nunes, P., Willians, S., Sa, B. and Stevenson, K. (2011) A Study of Emphaty Decline in Students from Five Health Disciplines during Their First Year of Training. International Journal of Medical Education, 2, 12-17.

[36]   Hojat, M., Vergare, M.J., Maxwell, K., Brainard, G., Herrine, S.K., Isenberg, G.A., Veloski, J. and Gonnella, J.S. (2009) The Devil Is in the Third Year: A Longitudinal Study of Erosion of Empathy in Medical School. Academic Medicine, 84, 1182-1191.

[37]   Sherman, J. and Cramer, A. (2005) Measurement of Changes in Empathy during Dental School. Journal of Dental Education, 69, 338-345.

[38]   Beattie, A., Durham, J., Harvey, J., Steele, J. and McHanwell, S. (2012) Does Empathy Change in First-Year Dental Student? European Journal of Dental Education, 16, e111-e116.

[39]   Gutiérrez-Ventura, F., Quezada-Huerta, B., López-Pinedo, M., Méndez-Vergaray, J., Díaz-Narváez, V., Zamorano, A. and Rivera, I. (2012) Measuring the Level of Empathic Perception of Students of the Faculty of Dentistry Robert Beltrán. Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University. Revista Estomatológica Herediana, 22, 91-99.

[40]   Varela, T., Villalba, R.H., Gargantini, P., Quinteros, S., Villaba, S.B. and Díaz-Narváez, V.P. (2012) Levels of Empathic Orientation Dental Students at the Catholic University of Cordoba, Argentina (UCC). Claves de Odontología, 70, 15-22.

[41]   Rivera, I., Arratia, R., Zamorano, A. and Díaz-Narváez, V.P. (2011) Measurement of Empathetic Orientation in Dentistry Students. Revista Salud Uninorte, 27, 63-72.

[42]   Garaigordobil, M. and García de Galdeano, P. (2006) Empathy in Children Aged 10 to 12 Years. Psicothema, 18, 180-186.

[43]   Rizzolatti, G., Fogassi, L. and Gallese, V. (2001) Neurophisiological Mechanisms Underlying the Understanding and Imitation of Action. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2, 661-670.

[44]   García-García, E., González, J. and Maestú-Unturbe, F. (2011) Mirror Neurons and Theory of Mind in Explaining Empathy. Ansiedad y Estrés, 17, 265-279.

[45]   Arán, V., López, M.B. and Richaud, M.C. (2012) Neuropsychological Approach to the Empathy Construct: Cognitive and Neuroanatomical Aspects. Cuadernos de Neuropsicología, 6, 63-83.

[46]   Smith, A. (2006) Cognitive Empathy and Emotional Empathy in Human Behavior and Evolution. The Psychological Record, 56, 3-21.

[47]   Almonte, C. and Montt, M.A. (2012) Child and Adolescent Psychopathology. 2a Ed, Mediterráneo, Santiago, 45-58.

[48]   Schwartz, B. and Bohay, R. (2012) Can Patients Help Teach Professionalism and Empathy to Dental Students? Adding Patient Videos to a Lecture Course. Journal of Dental Education, 76, 174-184.