IJG  Vol.6 No.12 , December 2015
Determination of the Lunar Ground Characteristics Using Bistatic Radar
ABSTRACT
At present, an investigation of the lunar ground at great depths is of paramount importance. This investigation can be carried out using decameter and meter waves. This article aims to analyze the variations of the reflectioncoefficient at decametric, meter and decimeteric bands. A possibility of determination of lunar ground characteristics by bistatic radar using powerful ground-based transmitters at VHF and UHF bands and a receiver aboard a Moon’s satellite is analysed. Appropriate algorithms are considered for determinationof the regolith layer thickness, dielectric permittivity, loss tangent, and density of the regolith and bedrocks. Expected results of measurements have been presented for a two-layer model of lunar ground, consisting of an upper layer with the loose porous rocks (regolith), and the rocks situated more deeply. Revealed regularities are a basis for determining the distribution of the permittivity in subsurface layer.

Cite this paper
Yakovlev, O. , Yushkova, O. , Matyugov, S. , Pavelyev, A. and Smirnov, V. (2015) Determination of the Lunar Ground Characteristics Using Bistatic Radar. International Journal of Geosciences, 6, 1267-1276. doi: 10.4236/ijg.2015.612101.
References
[1]   Smirnov, V.M., Yushkova, O.V., Marchuk, V.N., Abramov, V.V., Kvylinckii, Yu.F. and Lyakhov, Yu.N. (2013) Luna-Glob Project: Radio Sounding of the Lunar Ground. Journal of Communications Technology and Electronics, 55, 911-918. http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S106422691309012X

[2]   Patreson, G.W., Bussey, D.B.J., Stikle, A.M., Cahill, J.T.S. and Carter, L.M., the Mini-RF Team (2014) Mini-RF Bistatic Observation of Cabens Crater. EPSC Abstract v. 9, EPSC2014-63, 2014 European Planetary Science Congress.

[3]   Yakovlev, O.I. and Efimov, A.I. (1967) Studies of Reflection of Meter Radio Waves by the Lunar Surface. Doklady Academii Nauk SSSR, 174, 583-584. (In Russian).

[4]   Tyler, G.L., Eshleman, V.R., Fjeldbo, G., Howard, H.T. and Peterson, A.M. (1967) Bistatic-Radar Detection of Lunar Scattering Centers with Lunar Orbiter-1. Science, 157, 193-195.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.157.3785.193

[5]   Yakovlev, O.I., Efimov, A.I. and Matyugov, S.S. (1968) Scatter of Meter Radio Wave by the Lunar Surface. Kosmicheskie Issledovanija, 6, 432-437. (In Russian).

[6]   Tyler, G.L. (1968) Brewster Angle of the Lunar Crust. Nature, 219, 1243-1244.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/2191243a0

[7]   Tyler, G.L. (1968) Oblique-Scattering Radar Reflectivity of the Lunar Surface: Preliminary Results from Explorer-35. Journal of Geophysical Research, 73, 7609-7620. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/jb073i024p07609

[8]   Yakovlev, O.I., Matyugov, S.S. and Shvachkin, K.M. (1970) Parameters of Scattering Radio Waves and Characteristics of the Lunar Surface from Luna-14 Data. Radiotekhnikai Electronika, 15, 1339-1345. (In Russian).

[9]   Tyler, G.L. and Simpson, R.A. (1970) Bistatic Radar Measurements of Topographic Variations in Lunar Surface Slopes with Explorer-35. Radio Science, 5, 263-271. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/RS005i002p00263

[10]   Matyugov, S.S., Yakovlev, O.I. and Gritsajchuk, B.V. (1971) Frequency Spectra of Radio Waves Reflected by Lunar Surface. Radiotekhnikai Electronika, 16, 1545-1553. (In Russian).

[11]   Tyler, G.L. and Ingalls, D.H. (1971) Functional Dependences of Bistatic-Radar Frequency Spectra and Cross Sections on Surface Scattering Laws. Journal of Geophysical Research, 76, 4775-4785.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/JB076i020p04775

[12]   Parker, M.N. and Tyler, G.L. (1973) Bistatic-Radar Estimation of Surface-Slope Probability Distribution with Applications to the Moon. Radio Science, 8, 177-184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/RS008i003p00177

[13]   Tyler, G.L. and Howard, H.T. (1973) Dual-Frequency Bistatic Radar Investigations of the Moon with Apollos 14 and 15. Journal of Geophysical Research, 78, 4852-4874.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/JB078i023p04852

[14]   Kaevitser, V.I., Matyugov, S.S., Pavelyev, A.G. and Yakovlev, O.I. (1974) Frequency Spectra of Decimeter Radio Waves Reflected By Lunar Surface with Luna-19. Radiotekhnikai Electronika, 19, 936-945. (In Russian)

[15]   Zaizev, A.L., Kaevitser, V.I., Kucheryavenkov, A.I., Matyugov, S.S., Pavelyev, A.G., Petrov, G.M. and Yakovlev, O.I. (1977) Bistatic-Radar of the Moon by Modulated Signal. Radiotekhnikai Electronika, 22, 2096-2104. (In Russian)

[16]   Simpson, R.A. (1993) Spacecraft Studies of Planetary Surfaces Using Bistatic Radar. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 31, 465-482. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/36.214923

[17]   Yakovlev, O.I. (2002) Space Radio Science. Taylor and Francis, London.

[18]   Pavelyev, A.G. and Kucheryavenkov, A.I. (1994) Bistatic Sounding of Planetary Surfaces. Itogi Nauki I Techniki, 44, 81-175. (In Russian)

[19]   Olhoeft, G.R. and Strangway, D.W. (1975) Dielectric Properties of the First 100 Meters of the Moon. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 24, 394-404. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(75)90146-6

[20]   Heiken, G., Vaniman, D. and French, B.M. (Eds.) (1991) Lunar Sourcebook, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

[21]   Katsube, T.J. and Collett, L.S. (1973) Electrical Properties of Apollo 16 Lunar Samples. Proceedings of the 4th Lunar Science Conference, 3, 3101-3110.

[22]   Olhoeft, G.R., Frisillo, A.L. and Strangway, D.W. (1974) Electrical Properties of Lunar Soil Sample 15301,38. Journal of Geophysical Research, 79, 1599-1604. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/JB079i011p01599

[23]   Rust, A.C., Russell, J.K. and Knight, R.J. (1999) Dielectric Constant as a Predictor of Porosity in Dry Volcanic Rocks. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 91, 79-96.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0377-0273(99)00055-4

[24]   Yushkova, O.V. (2010) Reconstruction of the Parameter Half-Space. Journal of Communications Technology and Electronics, 55, 35-39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S1064226910010055

 
 
Top