OJPM  Vol.5 No.12 , December 2015
Predictive Factors for Smartphone Dependence: Relationship to Demographic Characteristics, Chronotype, and Depressive State of University Students
We investigated factors contributing to smartphone dependence. To 196 medical university students, we administered a set of self-reporting questionnaires designed to evaluate demographic characteristics, smartphone dependence, chronotype, and depressive state. Smartphone dependence was evaluated using the Wakayama Smartphone-Dependence Scale (WSDS) with 3 subscales: Subscale 1, immersion in Internet communication; Subscale 2, using a smartphone for extended periods of time and neglecting social obligations and other tasks; Subscale 3, using a smartphone while doing something else and neglect of etiquette. Multiple regression analyses revealed that living in a family, eveningness, and presence of depression were associated with Subscale 1, that living in a family and eveningness were also associated with Subscale 2, and that being a man was associated with Subscale 3. These findings suggest that smartphone dependence can be predicted by factors such as gender, mode of residence, chronotype, or depressive state.

Cite this paper
Toda, M. , Nishio, N. and Takeshita, T. (2015) Predictive Factors for Smartphone Dependence: Relationship to Demographic Characteristics, Chronotype, and Depressive State of University Students. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, 5, 456-462. doi: 10.4236/ojpm.2015.512051.
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