ACS  Vol.1 No.3 , July 2011
Effect of Urbanization and Industrialization Processes on Outdoor Thermal Human Comfort in Egypt
Author(s) El-Sayed ROBAA
Detailed studies on the effect of urbanization and industrialization processes on outdoor thermal human com- fort in Greater Cairo region, Egypt have been performed in this study. Four different districts in Greater Cairo region have been selected to represent rural, suburban, typical urban and industrial areas. The data of surface dry, wet bulb temperatures and wind speed for two different periods represent non-urbanized and urbanized periods have been used. Discomfort indices for the two periods have been calculated for the four districts. The study revealed that urbanization and industrialization processes have resulted in the distinctly modification of human comfortable at all districts. The feeling of quite comfortable reduced from the old non-urbanized period to the recent urbanized period at the four districts. During the recent urbanized period, the rural area has the highest total number of quite comfortable hours while both urban and industrial areas have the lowest total number of hours. The serious hot uncomfortable didn’t occur at all districts during the old non-urbanized period while during the recent urbanized period, all people had felt extreme serious hot uncomfortable only at urban and industrial areas. It could be concluded that the urbanization and industriali-zation processes cause increase of human serious hot uncomfortable feeling which in turn leads to more hin-dering for the human activities while the rural conditions leads to optimum weather comfort for further and more human activities.

Cite this paper
nullE. ROBAA, "Effect of Urbanization and Industrialization Processes on Outdoor Thermal Human Comfort in Egypt," Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, Vol. 1 No. 3, 2011, pp. 100-112. doi: 10.4236/acs.2011.13012.
[1]   Venkiteshwaran SP, Swaminathan MS. 1967. An estimate of thermal comfort at some stations in India. Indian J. Met. Geophys. 18, 1, 27-38.

[2]   Prasad SK, Pawar BC. 1982. Vayn Mandal. 12, PP. 53.

[3]   Lakshmanan V. 1984. Discomfort index over India in different months of the year. Mausam. 35, 4, 87-492 .

[4]   Hoppe P. 1999. The physiological equivalent temperature – a universal index for the biometeorological assessment of the thermal environment. International Journal of Biometeorology 43: 71–75.

[5]   Matzarakis A, Mayer H, Iziomon MG. 1999. Applications of a universal thermal index: physiological equivalent temperature. International Journal of Biometeorology 43: 76–84.

[6]   Gagge AP, Fobelets AP, Berglund LG. 1986. A standard predictive index of human response to the thermal environment. ASHRAE Transactions 92 (2b) 709-731.

[7]   Tham KW, Ullah MB. 1993.:Building energy performance and thermal comfort in Singapore. ASHRAE Tran- sactions 99 (1).

[8]   Brager GS, de Dear RJ. 1998.Thermal adaptation in the built environment: a literature review. Energy and Buildings 27: 83-96.

[9]   Robaa SM. 1999. Impact of urbanization on meteorology and human comfort in Greater Cairo, Egypt, PhD thesis, Meteorology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University.

[10]   Peter L, Dariush A, Charlie H. 2000. Window performance for human thermal comfort. The 2000 ASHRAE Winter Meeting, Dallas, TX, February 5-9, 2000.

[11]   Kien KH. 2001. Human thermal comfort. M. Sc. Thesis, Mississippi State University.

[12]   [12] Robaa SM. 2003. Urban-suburban/rural differences over Greater Cairo, Egypt. International Journal of Atmosfera 16–3: 157–171.

[13]   Spagnolo J, de Dear R. 2003. A field study of thermal comfort in outdoor and semi-outdoor environments in subtropical Sydney Australia. Building and Environment 38: 721–738.

[14]   Givoni B. 1989. Urban design in different climates. WCAP-10, WMO/TD-NO. 346.

[15]   Givoni B. 1976. Man, Climate & Architecture. 2nd Edition, Applied Science Publishers, Ltd., London, PP. 483.

[16]   Kratzer A. 1956. Das Stadtklima, Wieweg and Sohn, Bra- unschweig, p. 184.

[17]   Nieuwolt S. 1966. The urban microclimate of Singapore. J. of Trop. Geog., 22, 30-37.

[18]   Padmanabhamurty B. 1979. Isotherms and isohumes in Pune on clear winter nights: a Mesometeorological study. Mausam, 30, 134-138.

[19]   Jauregui E. 1986. Tropical urban climates: review and assessment. In Urban Climatology and its Applications with Special Regard to Tropical Areas, Oke TR (ed.). World Climate Programme, Publication No. 652, World Meteorological Organisation: Geneva; 26–45.

[20]   Oguntoyinbo JS. 1986. Some aspects of the urban climates of tropical Africa. Urban Climatology and its applications with special regard to tropical areas. Proceedings of the Technical Conference. Mexico D.F., 26-30 November 1984, WMO, No.652, 110-135, Geneva.

[21]   Padmanabhamurty B. 1986. Some aspects of the urban climates of India. Proceedings of the Tech. Conf. on urban Climatology and its applications with special regard to tropical area, Mexico D.F., 26-30 Nov.1984, WMO, No.652, WMO, Geneva.

[22]   Abedayo YR. 1991. Day-time effects of urbanization on relative humidity and vapour pressure in a tropical city. Theor. Appl. Climatol. 43, 17-30.

[23]   Oke TR. 1995. The heat island of the urban boundary layer: Characteristics, causes and effects. In Cermak, J. E. et al. (eds.), Wind Climate in Cities, Kluwier Academic Publishers, 81-107.

[24]   Unkasevic MO. 1996. Analysis of atmospheric moisture in Belgrade. Yugoslavia. Meteor. Zeit. 3, 121-124.

[25]   [25] Jauregui E, Tejeda A. 1997. Urban-rural humidity contrasts in Mexico City. Int. J. Climatol. 17, 187-196.

[26]   Kuttler W. 1998. Stadtklima. in Heyer, E. (ed.), Witte- rung und Klima, Teubner, Stuttgart Leipzig, 328-364.

[27]   Juan P. Montávez, Antonio Rodríguez, Juan I. Jiménez, 2000. A study of the Urban Heat Island of Granada. Int. J. Climatol. 20, 899-911.

[28]   Unkasevic MO, Jovanovic, Popovic T. 2001. Urban-su- burban/rural vapour pressure and relative humidity differences at fixed hours over the area of Belgrade City. Theor. Appl. Climatol. 68, 67-73.

[29]   Tereshchenko IE, Filonov AE. 2001. Air temperature fluctuations in Guadalajara, Mexico, from 1926 to 1994 in relation to urban growth. Int. J. Climatol. 21, 483-494.

[30]   Siple PA, Passel CF. 1945. Proc. Am. Phil. Sev. 89, PP. 177.

[31]   Thom EC. 1959. Weatherwise, 12, 2, PP. 57-60.

[32]   Missenard A. 1969. Klima und lebenensrhythums. Ausgabe, meisenheim.

[33]   Robaa SM. 2003. Thermal Human Comfort in Egypt. International Journal of Meteorology, Weather and Health Issue 28 (283): 359–371.

[34]   [34] Robaa SM, Hafez YY. 2002. Monitoring Urbanization Growth in Cairo City. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 49 (4): 667–679.

[35]   Mossad EI. 1996. Studying the solar radiation in different spectral bands and its attenuation by the air pollutants in different regions of the Great Cairo. Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University.

[36]   Higazy NA. 1983. Effect of air pollution visibility and penetration of solar ultraviolet radiation. Thesis for the Degree of Ph.D. of Science, Cairo University.

[37]   Hasanean HM. 1993. Studies on some regional climatic changes, MSc thesis, Cairo university, Egypt.

[38]   Hage, KD. 1975. Urban-rural humidity differences. J. Appl. Meteor. 14: 1277-1283.

[39]   Landsberg, HE. 1981. The urban climate. International Geophysics Series, Vol.28, Academic Press, New York, 275 P.

[40]   Lee, D. 1979. Contrasts in warming and cooling rates at an urban and rural site. Weather, Vol.24, pp.60-66.

[41]   Chow W, Roth M. 2006. Temporal dynamics of the urban heat island of Singapore. International Journal of Climatology 26: 2243–2260,

[42]   Chandler, T.J. 1965. The climate of London. London Univ. Lib., publishers, Hutchinson and Co., 292 pp.