JASMI  Vol.5 No.4 , December 2015
Solubility and Dissolution in Terms of Generalized Approach to Electrolytic Systems Principles
The correct approach, based on the rules of conservation and detailed physicochemical/thermodynamic knowledge on the system considered is opposed to conventional approach to solubility and dissolution, based on stoichiometry of a reaction notation and on the solubility product (Ksp) of a precipitate. The correct approach is realized according to Generalized Approach to Electrolytic Systems (GATES) principles, with use of iterative programs applied for computational purposes. All the qualitative and quantitative knowledge is involved in the balances and independent expressions for the equilibrium constants. Three two-phase electrolytic systems with diversified chemical properties were selected carefully, from the viewpoint of their diversity. The results of calculations are presented graphically and discussed. The advantages of the GATES in resolution of two-phase (static) non-redox systems and one complex (dynamic) redox system are proved.

Cite this paper
Michałowska-Kaczmarczyk, A. , Michałowski, T. , Toporek, M. and Pietrzyk, A. (2015) Solubility and Dissolution in Terms of Generalized Approach to Electrolytic Systems Principles. Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation, 5, 47-58. doi: 10.4236/jasmi.2015.54006.
[1]   Dirkse, T.P., Michalowski, T., Akaiwa, H. and Izumi, F. (1986) Copper, Silver, Gold and Zinc, Cadmium,
Mercury Oxides and Hydroxides. Solubility Data Series, Vol. 23, Oxford.

[2]   Kotrly, S. and Sucha, L. (1985) Handbook of Chemical Equilibria in Analytical Chemistry.
Ellis Horwood Series in Analytical Chemistry, Prentice Hall.

[3]   Michalowski, T. (2001) Calculations in Analytical Chemistry with Elements of Computer
Programming (in Polish). PK, Cracow. http://suw.biblos.pk.edu.pl/resourceDetails&rId=3974

[4]   Michalowska-Kaczmarczyk, A.M. and Michalowski, T. (2014) Calculation of Solubility of Oxyquinolinates.
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation, 4, 71-79.

[5]   Michalowska-Kaczmarczyk, A.M. and Michalowski, T. (2015) Solubility Product Challenge.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 407, 1789-1791.

[6]   Michalowska-Kaczmarczyk, A.M. and Michalowski, T. (2015) Solution to the Solubility Product
Challenge. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 407, 4877-4878.

[7]   Michalowski, T. (2011) Application of GATES and MATLAB for Resolution of Equilibrium, Metastable and
Non- Equilibrium Electrolytic Systems, Chapter 1, pp. 1-34. In: Michalowski, T., Ed., Applications of
MATLAB in Science and Engineering, InTech-Open Access Publisher in the Fields of Science,
Technology and Medicine, Rijeka.

[8]   Gordus, A.A. (1991) Chemical Equilibrium. VIII. Precipitates.
Journal of Chemical Education, 68, 927-930.

[9]   Clark, R.W. and Bonicamp, J.M. (1991) The Ksp-Solubility Conundrum.
Journal of Chemical Education, 75, 182-185.

[10]   http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Physical_Chemistry/Equilibria/Solubilty/Solubility/Calculations_Involving_

[11]   Michalowska-Kaczmarczyk, A.M., Asuero, A.G. and Michalowski, T. (2015) “Why Not Stoichiometry”
versus “Stoichiometry—Why Not?” Part I. General Context.
Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry, 45, 166-188.

[12]   Michalowska-Kaczmarczyk, A.M. and Michalowski, T. (2014) Evaluation of Transition Points between
Different Solid Phases in Aqueous Media.
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation (JASMI), 4, 87-94.

[13]   Michalowski, T. and Pietrzyk, A. (2006) A Thermodynamic Study of Struvite + Water System.
Talanta, 68, 594-601.

[14]   Beilstein, F. and Grosset, T. (1890) Ueber die Bestimmung der freien Schwefelsäure in
der Schwefelsauren Thonerde. Zeitschrift für Analytische Chemie, 29, 73-78.

[15]   Doyle, J.D. and Parsons, S.A. (2002) Struvite Formation, Control and Recovery.
Water Research, 36, 3925-3940.

[16]   Komiyama, T., Niizuma, S., Fujisawa, E. and Morikuni, H. (2013) Phosphorus Compounds and
Their Solubility in Swine Manure Compost. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 59, 419-426.

[17]   http://www2.bakersfieldcollege.edu/wcooper/HW%20Answers_Spring_

[18]   http://www.britannica.com/topic/nickel-dimethylglyoxime

[19]   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dimethylglyoxime

[20]   Gazda, D.B., Fritz, J.S. and Porter, M.D. (2004) Determination of Nickel(II) as the Nickel
Dimethylglyoxime Complex Using Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction.
Analytica Chimica Acta, 508, 53-59.

[21]   Michalowski, T., Nizińska-Pstrusińska, M., Sztark, W. and Baterowicz, A. (2002)
Laboratory Trainings in Analytical Chemistry. PK, Cracow. (In Polish)

[22]   http://www.google.ca/patents/US4621080

[23]   http://www.chemicalland21.com/lifescience/phar/COPPER-8-QUINOLATE.htm

[24]   http://www.inchem.org/documents/iarc/vol15/copper8hydroxyquinoline.html

[25]   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/8-Hydroxyquinoline

[26]   Inczédy, J. (1976) Analytical Applications of Complex Equilibria. Ellis Horwood, Chichester.

[27]   http://chemlab.truman.edu/CHEM222manual/pdf/nickelgrav.pdf

[28]   Michalowski, T. (1982) Solubility Diagrams and Their Use in Gravimetric Analysis.
Chemia Analityczna, 27, 39-49.

[29]   Stratful, I., Scrimshaw, M.D. and Lester, J.N. (2001) Conditions Influencing the Precipitation of
Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate. Water Research, 35, 4191-4199.

[30]   Golubev, S. (2000) Solubility of Struvite in Seawater. Journal of Conference Abstracts, 5, 449.

[31]   Demirer, G.N. (2011) Struvite Precipitation from Anaerobic Co-Digestion Residues of Poultry Manure
and Maize Silage. XXXIV CIOSTA CIGR V Conference 2011.

[32]   Shalaby, M.S., El-Rafie, S., Hamzaoui, A. and M’nif, H.A. (2015) Modeling and Optimization of
Phosphate Recovery from Industrial Wastewater and Precipitation of Solid Fertilizer Using Experimental Design Methodology. Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Quarterly, 29, 35-46.

[33]   Michalowska-Kaczmarczyk, A.M., Michalowski, T., Toporek, M. and Asuero, A.G. (2015) “Why Not
Stoichiometry” versus “Stoichiometry—Why Not?” Part III, Extension of GATES/GEB on Complex Dynamic Redox Systems. Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry, 45, 348-366.

[34]   Steudel, R. (Ed.) (2003) Elemental Sulfur and Sulfur-Rich Compounds, II, Topics in Current Chemistry.
Springer- Verlag, Berlin.