Back
 ARS  Vol.4 No.4 , December 2015
Integration of Point and Remote Sensing Data for Monitoring Surface Runoff around Madinah City, Saudi Arabia
Abstract: In response to sporadic rainy storms, the fluvial catchments in the northern, eastern and southern regimes of Medina City produce surface runoff that varies in the frequency and magnitude. The determination of the most frequently flowing catchment(s) through each precipitation event and the spatial characteristics of surface runoff still represent gaps in understanding the hydrological processes associated with flash floods in arid environments. The lack of data in particular precipitation records at reliable temporal and spatial scales is considered one of the essential constraints in understanding these issues. The integration of point precipitation records and the multi-temporal satellite imagery such as LandSat TM and the Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission (TRMM) helped retrieve significant surface runoff events through two decades of the last century around Madinah City. The spectral signatures of surface runoff have been clearly identified from the optical remote sensing images acquired after each precipitation event. Investigating the spectral signatures of surface runoff along with its corresponding precipitation records from both Madinah climatic station and the TRMM monthly precipitation indicated that 1) there is no specific threshold of the amount of precipitation required for developing surface runoff; 2) while Madinah climatic station provided records of precipitation on the majority of surface runoff, it did not provide records on some monitored surface runoff events; 3) the spatial distribution and magnitude of the monthly precipitation of the TRMM images of 1998 have been conformed with all surface runoff events developed in W. Al-Aqeeq; and 4) W. Al-Aqeeq is considered the most frequently flowing valley around Madinah City because it developed surface runoff in response to all the precipitation events. These results emphasize the necessity of establishing a number of climatic and gauge stations in selective locations within the drainage basins around Madinah City. This proposition can facilitate studying the various rainfall and runoff characteristics for designing proper surface water harvesting strategy.
Cite this paper: Ibrahim, E. , El-Barodi, M. and Al-Ghamdi, K. (2015) Integration of Point and Remote Sensing Data for Monitoring Surface Runoff around Madinah City, Saudi Arabia. Advances in Remote Sensing, 4, 287-302. doi: 10.4236/ars.2015.44024.
References

[1]   Subyani, A. and Bayumi, T. (2001) Physiographical and Hydrological Analysis of Yalamlam Basin, Makkah Al-Mukarramah Area. JKAU: Earth Sciences, 13, 151-177.

[2]   El-Barodi, M. and Mirza, M. (2005) Morphologic and Hydrologic Characteristics of the Fluvial Valleys within Al-Haram Region. Journal of Umm Al-Qura University for Educational and Social Sciences, 17, 385-433. (In Arabia)

[3]   Bourouba, M. (2007) Hydro-Morphometric Studies for Flash Flood Estimation in Wadi Autod Drainage Basin, Saudi Arabia. Gulf and Arab Peninsula Studies Center, Special Issue Periodicals, 21, 1-145. (In Arabic)

[4]   Fred, E. and Mostafa, B. (2008) Flood Risk Modeling for Holy Sites in Makkah. Proceedings of the Symposium on National GIS Applications, Al-Kober City, 1-12.

[5]   Al-Juaidi, F. (2008) Hydro-Morphometric and Flash Flood Characteristics of the Drainage Basins Proposed for Dam Installations on the Valleys of Aliya Drainage Basin, Al-Kharj Governorate. Geographical Research Journal, 84, 1-57. (In Arabic)

[6]   Dawood, G., Mirza, M. and Al-Ghamdi, K. (2012) GIS-Based Estimation of Flood Hazard Impacts on Road Network in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia. Environmental Earth Science, 67, 2205-2215.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12665-012-1660-9

[7]   Al-Juaidi, F. and Borobah, M. (2007) Estimation of Peak Hydrograph of Floods in Wadi Al-Ain Catchment. Geographic Research Center, King Saud University, 40. (In Arabic)

[8]   El-Barodi, M. (2012) Flash Flood Estimation and Hazards of WadiUranah Southeast Makkah Using GIS. Geographical Research Series, Egyptian Geographic Society. (In Arabic)

[9]   Al-Juaidi, F. (2005) Using Fine Spatial Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery for the determination of Flash Flood Extents in Al-Kharj Plain. Saudi Geographical Society, 71. (In Arabic)

[10]   Al-Ghamdi, S. (2006) Using GIS for Extracting Morphometric Parameters from Digital Elevation Models: A Case Study of Wadi Zora, Saudi Arabia. Kuwait Geographical Society, 317. (In Arabic)

[11]   Al-Hawwas, A.A. (2007) Integration of Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques for the Determination and Analysis of Hydro-Morphometric Characteristics of Desert Drainage Basins. Saudi Geographical Society, Geographical Research, 18. (In Arabic)

[12]   El-Bastawesy, M.A., Ali, R.R. and Nasr, A.H. (2008) The Use of Remote Sensing and GIS for Catchment Delineation in Northwestern Coast of Egypt: An Assessment of Water Resources and Soil Potential. The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Sciences, 11, 3-16.

[13]   El-Bastawesy, M., White, K. and Nasr, A.H. (2009) Integration of Remote Sensing and GIS for Modeling Flash Flood in Wadi Hudain Catchment, Egypt. Hydrological Processes, 13, 1359-1368.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hyp.7259

[14]   Abou El-Magd, I.H., Hermas, E.A. and El-Bastawesy, M.A. (2010) Integration of Hydrological Modeling and GIS for Assessment and Prediction of Natural Hazards in Abu Dabbab Area, Red Sea Region, Egypt. The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Sciences, 13, 81-88.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrs.2010.07.010

[15]   Dawood, G. and Koshak, N. (2011) Developing GIS-Based Unit Hydrograph for Flood Management in Makka Metropolitan Area, Saudi Arabia. Journal of Geographic Information System, 3, 153-159.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jgis.2011.32012

[16]   Dawood, G., Mirza, M. and Al-Ghamdi, K.A. (2011) Assessment of Several Flood Estimation Methodologies in Makkah Metropolitan Area, Saudi Arabia. Journal of Geographic Information Systems, 3, 217-233.

[17]   Koshak, N. and Dawood, G. (2011) A GIS Morphometric Analysis of Hydrological Catchments within Makkah Metropolitan Area, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Geomatics and Geosciences, 2, 544-554.

[18]   Al-Ghamdi, K., Mirza, M. and El Zahrany, R. (2011) GIS Evaluation of Urban Growth and Flood Hazards: A Case Study of Makkah City, Saudi Arabia. TS07D-GIS Applications, 5479, FIG Working Week, Knowing to Manage the Territory, Protect Environment, Evaluate the Cultural Heritage, Rome, 6-10 May 2011, 24 p.

[19]   Al-Shantti, A.M. (1993) Geology of Arabian Shield. Center of Scientific Research, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah.

[20]   Mirza, M. (2008) Structural and Morphological Characteristics of Harrats (Volcanic Eruptions) West of Saudi Arabia with Emphasis on Central Harrats: Harrat Kishb as a Case Study. Journal of Faculty of Social Sciences, 20, 197-382.

[21]   Al-Shareef, A.S. (1998) Geology of Madina (Environment and Human). Madinah Al-Munwarrah Art Club, Madinah Al-Munwarrah.

[22]   Scholz, A. (1972) The Construction of Morphographic and Morphometric Maps. In: Demek, J., Ed., Manual of Detailed Geomorphological Mapping, Academia, Publishing House of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague.

[23]   Jensen, S.K. and Domingue, J.O. (1998) Extracting Topographic Structure from Digital Elevation Data for Geographic Information System Analysis. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 54, 1593-1600.

 
 
Top