The Ni’s Solution for Neutron Star and Outward Oriented Gravitational Attraction in Its Interior

Author(s)
Luboš Neslušan

ABSTRACT

In 2011, Jun Ni published the solution of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations describing the structure of stable neutron stars, which implies that 1) there is no upper mass limit of these objects, 2) their outer physical surface is always situated above the corresponding event horizon, and 3) the object is a hollow sphere with the inner physical surface and cavity inside. In our paper, we propose to “purify” the general relativity, as the geometrical theory, from the concept of mass. If we get rid of the concept of mass and Newtonian-type potential, then we obtain such the behavior of gravity which results in the above mentioned stable Ni’s object. It is farther pointed out that the distribution of matter, which is observed as spherically symmetric by the observer in its center, is not longer observed as spherically symmetric by an observer aside the center in a curved spacetime of general relativity. This fact implies, in contrast to the Newtonian physics, the non-zero and outward oriented gravitational attraction of upper layers of star. Ni considered positive energy density and pressure. In addition, gravity had everywhere attractive character. No “exotic” assumption was made. Hence, there is no reason why his concept of hollow sphere should not be applicable to the models of real objects.

In 2011, Jun Ni published the solution of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations describing the structure of stable neutron stars, which implies that 1) there is no upper mass limit of these objects, 2) their outer physical surface is always situated above the corresponding event horizon, and 3) the object is a hollow sphere with the inner physical surface and cavity inside. In our paper, we propose to “purify” the general relativity, as the geometrical theory, from the concept of mass. If we get rid of the concept of mass and Newtonian-type potential, then we obtain such the behavior of gravity which results in the above mentioned stable Ni’s object. It is farther pointed out that the distribution of matter, which is observed as spherically symmetric by the observer in its center, is not longer observed as spherically symmetric by an observer aside the center in a curved spacetime of general relativity. This fact implies, in contrast to the Newtonian physics, the non-zero and outward oriented gravitational attraction of upper layers of star. Ni considered positive energy density and pressure. In addition, gravity had everywhere attractive character. No “exotic” assumption was made. Hence, there is no reason why his concept of hollow sphere should not be applicable to the models of real objects.

Cite this paper

Neslušan, L. (2015) The Ni’s Solution for Neutron Star and Outward Oriented Gravitational Attraction in Its Interior.*Journal of Modern Physics*, **6**, 2164-2183. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2015.615220.

Neslušan, L. (2015) The Ni’s Solution for Neutron Star and Outward Oriented Gravitational Attraction in Its Interior.

References

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.55.374

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.56.455

[3] Ni, J. (2011) Science China: Physics, Mechanics, and Astronomy, 54, 1304-1308.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11433-011-4350-9

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.55.364

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mnras/95.3.207

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/andp.19163540702

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[17] Rhoades, C.E. and Ruffini, R. (1972) Physical Review Letters, 32, 324-327.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.32.324

[1] Oppenheimer, J.R. and Volkoff, G.M. (1939) Physical Review, 55, 374-381.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.55.374

[2] Oppenheimer, J.R. and Snyder, H. (1939) Physical Review, 56, 455-459.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.56.455

[3] Ni, J. (2011) Science China: Physics, Mechanics, and Astronomy, 54, 1304-1308.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11433-011-4350-9

[4] Tolman, R.C. (1939) Physical Review, 55, 364-373.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.55.364

[5] Chandrasekhar, S. (1935) Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 95, 207-255.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mnras/95.3.207

[6] Landau, L. (1932) Physikalische zeitschrift der Sowjetunion, 1, 285.

[7] Einstein, A. (1915) Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 844-846.

[8] Einstein, A. (1916) Annalen der Physik, 354, 769-822.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/andp.19163540702

[9] Eddington, A.S. (1922) Relativitätstheorie in Mathematisher Behandlung. Alexander Ostrowski and Harry Schmidt, Göttingen and Cöthen. (In German)

[10] Birkhoff, G.D. and Langer, R.E. (1923) Relativity and Modern Physik. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.

[11] Schwarzschild, K. (1916) Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Phys.-Math. Classe, 1, 189-196.

[12] Misner, C.W., Thorne, K.S., and Wheeler, J.A. (1997) Gravitation. 20th Printing, W. H. Freeman et Comp., New York.

[13] Tolman, R.C. (1969) Relativity, Thermodynamics, and Cosmology. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

[14] de Broglie, L. (1925) Annales de Physique, 3, 22.

[15] de Broglie, L. (1925) Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences, 180, 498.

[16] Penrose, R. (1969) Nuovo Cimento, 1, 252-276.

[17] Rhoades, C.E. and Ruffini, R. (1972) Physical Review Letters, 32, 324-327.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.32.324