JEP  Vol.6 No.12 , December 2015
Contamination of Water, Dust, Soil, Rock and Urine with Fluoride in Central India
Abstract: At least 15% of 0.1 million people residing in 117 villages of Tamnar block (Chhattisgarh, central India) are suffering from fluorosis diseases. In this work, the contamination of F- in the environment (i.e. water, soil, rock and urine) of the Tamnar block is described. The concentration variations of F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Al, Mn, Fe and Zn in the groundwater are reported. The F- content in the water was ranged from 1.7 - 17 mg/L with mean value of 9.0 ± 3.7 mg/L. Fluoride was enriched up to 3-, 54-, 69- and 244-folds in the urine, soil, dust and rock, respectively. The cluster and factor analysis models were used to apportion sources of F- and other elements in the water.
Cite this paper: Patel, K. , Sahu, D. , Dahariya, N. , Sahu, B. , Ramteke, S. , Blazhev, B. , Matini, L. , Yubero, E. and Hoinkis, J. (2015) Contamination of Water, Dust, Soil, Rock and Urine with Fluoride in Central India. Journal of Environmental Protection, 6, 1347-1359. doi: 10.4236/jep.2015.612117.

[1]   Manahan, S.E. (2009) Environmental Chemistry, 7th Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton. Environmental Progress, 21, J13-J14.

[2]   Arlappa, N., Aatif Qureshi, I. and Srinivas, R. (2013) Fluorosis in India: An Overview. International Journal of Research and Development of Health, 1, 97-102.

[3]   Brindha, K., Rajesh, R., Murugan, R. and Elango, L. (2011) Fluoride Contamination in Groundwater in Parts of Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 172, 481-492.

[4]   Dar, M.A., Shankar, K. and Dar, I.A. (2011) Fluorine Contamination in Groundwater: A Major Challenge. Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 173, 955-968.

[5]   Das, B., Talukdar, J., Sharma, S., Gohain, B., Dutta, R.K., Das, H.B and Das, S.C. (2003) Fluoride and Other Inorganic Constituents in Groundwater of Guwahati, Assam, India. Current Science, 85, 657-661.

[6]   Datta, A.S., Chakrabortty, A., De Dalal, S.S., and Lahiri, S.C. (2014) Fluoride Contamination of Underground Water in West Bengal, India. Fluoride, 47, 241-248.

[7]   Dutta, R.K., Saikia, G., Das, B., Bezbaruah, C., Das, H.B. and Dube, S.N. (2006) Fluoride Contamination in Groundwater of Central Assam, India. Asian Journal of Water Environmental and Pollution, 3, 93-100.

[8]   Hussain, I., Arif, M and Hussain, J. (2012) Fluoride Contamination in Drinking Water in Rural Habitations of Central Rajasthan, India. Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 184, 5151-5158.

[9]   Jha, S.K., Nayak, A.K. and Sharma, Y.K. (2010) Potential Fluoride Contamination in the Drinking Water of Marks Nagar, Unnao District, Uttar Pradesh, India. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 32, 217-226.

[10]   Kundu, M.C. and Mandal, B. (2009) Assessment of Potential Hazards of Fluoride Contamination in Drinking Ground-water of an Intensively Cultivated District in West Bengal, India. Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 152, 97-103.

[11]   Meenakshi, Garg, V.K., Kavita, Renuka and Malik, A. (2004) Groundwater Quality in Some Villages of Haryana, India: Focus on Fluoride and Fluorosis. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 106, 85-97.

[12]   Raju, N.J., Dey, S. and Das, K. (2009) Fluoride Contamination in Groundwater of Sonbhadra District, Uttar Pradesh, India. Current Science, 96, 975-985.

[13]   Reddy, D.V., Nagabhushanam, P., Sukhij, B.S., Reddy, A.G.S. and Smedley, P.L. (2010) Fluoride Dynamics in the Granitic Aquifer of the Wailapally Watershed, Nalgonda District, India. Chemical Geology, 269, 278-289.

[14]   Shaji, E., Viju, B.E. and Thambi, D.S. (2007) High Fluoride in Groundwater of Palghat District, Kerala. Current Science, 92, 240-245.

[15]   Sharma, B.S., Agrawal, J. and Gupta, A.K. (2011) Emerging Challenge: Fluoride Contamination in Groundwater in Agra District, Utter Pradesh. Asian Journal of Experimental Biological Science, 2, 131-134.

[16]   Sankararamakrishnan, N., Sharma, A.K. and Iyengar, L. (2008) Contamination of Nitrate and Fluoride in Ground Water along the Ganges Alluvial Plain of Kanpur District, Uttar Pradesh, India. Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 146, 375-382.

[17]   Singh, V.K., Bikundia, D.S., Sarswat, A. and Mohan, D. (2012) Groundwater Quality Assessment in the Village of Lutfullapur Nawada, Loni, District Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 184, 4473-4488.

[18]   Singh, B., Gaur, S. and Garg, V.K. (2007) Fluoride in Drinking Water and Human Urine in Southern Haryana, India. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 144, 147-151.

[19]   Suthar, S., Garg, V.K., Jangir, S., Kaur, S., Goswami, N. and Singh, S. (2008) Fluoride Contamination in Drinking Water in Rural Habitations of Northern Rajasthan, India. Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 145, 1-6.

[20]   Yadav, J.P., Lata, S., Kataria, S.K. and Kumar, S. (2009) Fluoride Distribution in Ground Water and Survey of Dental Fluorosis among School Children in the Villages of the Jhajjar District of Haryana, India. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 31, 431-438.

[21]   Viswanathan, G., Jaswanth, A., Gopalakrishnan, S., Siva Ilango, S. and Aditya, G. (2009) Determining the Optimal Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Fluoride Endemic Regions in South India. Science of the Total Environment, 407, 5298-5307.

[22]   Patel, K.S., Sharma, R., Sahu, B.L., Patel, R.K. and Matini, L. (2014) Groundwater Quality of Rajnandgaon City, India. Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution, 11, 31-37.

[23]   Patel, K.S., Sahu, B.L., Dahariya, N.S., Bhatia, A., Patel, R.K., Matini, L., Sracek, O. and Bhattacharya, P. (2015) Groundwater Arsenic and Fluoride in Rajnandgaon District, Chhattisgarh, Northeastern India. Applied Water Science, In Press.

[24]   Beg, M.K., Srivastav, S.K., Carranza, E.J.M. and de Smeth, J.B. (2011) High Fluoride Incidence in Groundwater and its Potential Health Effects in parts of Raigarh District, Chhattisgarh, India. Current Science, 100, 750-754.

[25]   Nielsen, D.M. and Nielsen, G. (2006) The Essential Handbook of Ground-Water Sampling. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

[26]   Carter, M.R. and Gregorich, E.G. (2007) Soil Sampling and Methods of Analysis. 2nd Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton.

[27]   McQuaker, N.R. and Gurney, M. (1977) Determination of Total Fluoride in Soil and Vegetation Using an Alkali Fusion Selective Ion Electrode Technique. Analytical Chemistry, 49, 53-56.

[28]   APHA, American Public Health Association (2005) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 21st Edition, American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation, Washington DC.

[29]   Nollet, L.M.L. and De Gelder, L.S.P. (2007) Handbook of Water Analysis. 2nd Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton.

[30]   Laaksoharju, M., Skarman, C. and Skarman, E. (1999) Multivariate Mixing and Mass Balance (M3) Calculation, a New Tool for Decoding Hydrogeochemical Information. Applied Geochemistry, 14, 861-871.

[31]   Malinowski, E.R. (1991) Factor Analysis in Chemistry. 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York.

[32]   Sharma, M.K. and Jain, C.K. (2006) Multivariate Analysis of Ground Water Quality Date of District Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India. Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering, 48, 271-280.

[33]   Rudnick, R.L. and Gao, S. (2003) The Composition of the Continental Crust. Treatise on Geochemistry, 3, 1-64.

[34]   Jha, S.K., Nayak, A.K., Sharma, Y.K., Mishra, V.K. and Sharma, D.K. (2008) Fluoride Accumulation in Soil and Vegetation in the Vicinity of Brick fields. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 80, 369-373.

[35]   Madhavan, N. and Subramanian, V. (2002) Fluoride in Fractionated Soil Samples of Ajmer District, Rajasthan. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 4, 821-822.

[36]   Shanwal, A.V., Dahiya, I.S. and Dahiya, D.J. (1989) Soil Fluorine as an Indicator of Profile Development in Yamuna Alluvial Plain India. Fluoride, 22, 119-127.

[37]   BIS (2009) Drinking Water—Specification. 2nd Edition, Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi.

[38]   WHO (2011) Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. 4th Edition, World Health Organization, Geneva.