JEP  Vol.6 No.12 , December 2015
Effect of Cadmium on Lactuca sativa Grown in Hydroponic Culture Enriched with Phosphate Fertilizer
Abstract: Cadmium (Cd), one of the most toxic heavy metals added to soil after phosphate fertilizer treatment, was investigated. The effects of this metal on morphological and physiological changes of Lactuca sativa were studied in addition to its partitioning in different parts of the crop. In parallel, Lactuca sativa was allowed to grow under hydroponic conditions with modifications of the Hoagland nutrient solution. This solution was submitted to five Cd concentrations, 0, 0.093, 0.186, 0.279 and 0.372 mg Cd/L and three P concentrations, 0, 299 and 1420 mg P/L. The study showed a positive effect of phosphorus on root elongation, surface area while cadmium inhibited plant growth and sometimes the death of the plants. Cadmium was found to be accumulated in roots while zinc was preferably accumulated in the leaves and stems. The increase of performance of Lactuca sativa under hydroponic condition and Hoagland contaminated solution with cadmium was found to be better than the ones grown in Cd amended soil with or without phosphorus.
Cite this paper: Azzi, V. , Kanso, A. , Kobeissi, A. , Kazpard, V. , Lartiges, B. and Samrani, A. (2015) Effect of Cadmium on Lactuca sativa Grown in Hydroponic Culture Enriched with Phosphate Fertilizer. Journal of Environmental Protection, 6, 1337-1346. doi: 10.4236/jep.2015.612116.

[1]   Belon, E., Boisson, M., Deportes, I.Z., Eglin, T.K., Feix, I., Bispo, A.O., Galsomies, I., Leblond, S. and Guellier, C.R. (2012) An Inventory of Trace Elements Inputs to French Agricultural Soils. Science of the Total Environment, 439, 87-95.

[2]   Thakur, S.K., Tomar, N.K. and Pandeya, S.B. (2006) Influence of Phosphate on Cadmium Sorption by Calcium Carbonate. Geoderma, 130, 240-249.

[3]   Kirkham M.B. (2006) Cadmium in Plants on Polluted Soils: Effects of Soil Factors, Hyperaccumulation, and Amendments. Geoderma, 137, 19-32.

[4]   Dheri, G.S., Brar, M.S. and Malhi, S.S. (2007) Influence of Phosphorus Application on Growth and Cadmium Uptake of Spinach in Two Cadmium-Contaminated Soils. Journal of Plant Nutrition Soil Science, 170, 495-499.

[5]   Romero-Puertas, M.C., Rodríguez-Serrano, M., Corpas, F.J., Gómez, M., Del Río, L.A. and Sandalio, L.M. (2004) Cadmium-Induced Subcellular Accumulation of and H2O2 in Pea Leaves. Plant, Cell & Environment, 27, 1122-1134.

[6]   Dias, M.C, Monteiro, C., Moutinho-Pereira, J., Correia, C., Gonçalves, B. and Santos, C. (2012) Cadmium Toxicity Affects Photosynthesis and Plant Growth at Different Levels. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 35, 1281-1289.

[7]   Das, P., Samantaray, S. and Rout, G.R. (1997) Studies on Cadmium Toxicity in Plants: A Review. Environmental Pollution, 98, 29-36.

[8]   Lopez-Millan, A.-F., Sagardoy, R., Solanas, M., Abadía, A. and Abadía, J. (2009) Cadmium Toxicity in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Plants Grown in Hydroponics. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 65, 376-385.

[9]   Zorrig, W., Rouached, A., Shahzad, Z., Abdelly, C., Davidian, J.-C. and Berthomieu, P. (2010) Identification of Three Relationships Linking Cadmium Accumulation to Cadmium Tolerance and Zinc and Citrate Accumulation in Lettuce. Journal of Plant Physiology, 167, 1239-1247.

[10]   Armas, T., Pinto, A.P., de Varennes, A., Mourato, M.P., Martins, L.L., Gonçalves Simões, L.L. and Mota, A.M. (2015) Comparison of Cadmium-Induced Oxidative Stress in Brassica juncea in Soil and Hydroponic Cultures. Plant and Soil, 388, 297-305.

[11]   Monteiro, M.S., Santos, C., Soares, A.M.V.M. and Mann, R.M. (2009) Assessment of Biomarkers of Cadmium Stress in Lettuce. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 72, 811-818.

[12]   Feltrim, A.L., Filho, A.B.C., Branco, R.B.F., Barbose, J.C. and Salatiel, L.T. (2005) Yield of American Lettuce Cultivated in Soil and Hydropony during Winter and Summer Seasons, in Jaboticabal, SP. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental, 9, 505-509.

[13]   Domingues, D.S., Takahashi, H.W., Camara, C.A.P. and Nixdorf, S.L. (2012) Automated System Developed to Control pH and Concentration of Nutrient Solution Evaluated in Hydroponic Lettuce Production. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 84, 53-61.

[14]   Liu, Y., Vijer, M.G. and Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M. (2014) Impacts of Major Cations (K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+) and Protons on Toxicity Predictions of Nickel and Cadmium to Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Using Exposure Models. Ecotoxicology, 23, 385-395.

[15]   Astolfi, S., Zuchi, S. and Passera, C. (2004) Effects of Cadmium on the Metabolic Activity of Avena sativa Plants Grown in Soil or Hydroponic Culture. Biologia Plantarium, 48, 413-418.

[16]   Niu, Z.-X., Sun, L.-N., Sun, T.-H., Li, Y.-S. and Wang, H. (2007) Evaluation of Phytoextracting Cadmium and Lead by Sunflower, Ricinus, Alfalfa and Mustard in Hydroponic Culture. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 19, 961-967.

[17]   Costa, E. and Leal, P.A.M. (2009) Produção de alface hidropônica em três ambientes de cultivo. Engenharia Agrícola, Jaboticaba, 29, 358-369.

[18]   Waisberg, M., Black, W.D., Waisberg, C.M. and Hale, B. (2004) The Effect of pH, Time and Dietary Source of Cadmium on the Bioaccessibility and Adsorption of Cadmium to/from Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Ostinata). Food Chemical and Toxicology, 42, 835-842.

[19]   Sánchez-Calderón, L., López-Bucio, J., Chacón-López, A., Gutiérrez-Ortega, A., Hernández-Abreu, E. and Herrera-Estrella, L. (2006) Characterization of Low Phosphorus Insensitive Mutants Reveals a Crosstalk between Low Phosphorus-Induced Determinate Root Development and the Activation of Genes Involved in the Adaptation of Arabidopsis to Phosphorus Deficiency. Plant Physiology, 140, 879-889.

[20]   Williamson, L.C., Ribrioux, S.P.C.P., Fitter, A.H. and Leyser, H.M.O. (2001) Phosphate Availability Regulates Root System Architecture in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology, 126, 875-882.

[21]   Köleli, N., Eker, S. and Cakmak, I. (2004) Effect of Zinc Fertilization on Cadmium Toxicity in Durum and Bread Wheat Grown in Zinc-Deficient Soil. Environmental Pollution, 131, 453-459.

[22]   Lambert, R., Grant, C. and Sauvé, S. (2007) Cadmium and Zinc in Soil Solution Extracts Following the Application of Phosphate Fertilizers. Science of the Total Environment, 378, 293-305.

[23]   Gao, X., Mohr, R.M., McLaren, D.L. and Grant, C.A. (2011) Grain Cadmium and Zinc Concentrations in Wheat as Affected by Genotypic Variation and Potassium Chloride Fertilization. Field Crops Research, 122, 95-103.

[24]   Rojas-Cifuentes, G.A., Johnson, B.L., Berti, M.T. and Norvell, W.A. (2012) Zinc Fertilization Effects on Seed Cadmium Accumulation in Oilseed and Grain Crops Grown on North Dakota Soils. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research, 72, 117-124.

[25]   Gupta, D.K., Chatterjee, S., Datta, S., Veer, V. and Walther, C. (2014) Role of Phosphate Fertilizers in Heavy Metal Uptake and Detoxification of Toxic Metals. Chemosphere, 108, 134-144.

[26]   Salah, S.A. and Barrington, S.F. (2006) Effect of Soil Fertility and Transpiration Rate on Young Wheat Plants (Triticum aestivum) Cd/Zn Uptake and Yield. Agricultural Water Management, 82, 177-192.