AS  Vol.6 No.11 , November 2015
Effects of Soil Applications of Micro-Nutrients and Chelating Agent Citric Acid on Mineral Nutrients in Soybean Seeds
Abstract: Micro-nutrient deficiency in soil results in crop yield loss and poor seed quality. Correcting this deficiency is normally done by foliar or soil application. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of soil applications of five micro-nutrients (Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, and B) alone and in combination with a chelating agent citric acid (CA) on soybean leaf and seed nutrients. Source of micro-nutrient compounds were MnCl2, CuCl2, ZnCl2, MoO3, and H3BO3. Our hypothesis was that micro-and macro-nutrients may be transported to leaves and then to seeds at different rates. They may interact synergistically or competitively during the uptake process. A greenhouse experiment was conducted at Mississippi Valley State University, Itta Bena, Mississippi, USA. Soybean cultivar, Bolivar (maturity group V), was applied with micro-nutrients-chelating agent citric acid at V3 and R3 (pod initiation) stage. The results showed that applications of Cu, Zn, B and Mo increased three unrolled trifoliate leaves Cu, Zn, B by 26.5%, 13.8%, 113% and Mo increased to 179 mg/kg, respectively in the leaves. Also, the application of “Cu, Zn, B and Mo increased Cu, Zn, B by 55.5%, 8.2%, 28.6% and Mo increased to 202 mg/kg” respectively in soybean seeds. Application of Mn had no direct effect on increasing Mn either in leaves or in seeds, however, Mn and Mn + CA treatment affected other mineral contents. Application of Cu, Zn, Mo, B and CA increased macro-nutrients K, N, P, Mg, and S. Irrespective of the applications, the nutrient increase trend in seed was Na > Fe > Zn > Mn > B > Cu > Mo. However, Mo application resulted in the following seed nutrient accumulation pattern: Na > Mo > Fe > Zn > Mn > B > Cu. This may suggest that Mo had higher mobility to seeds than other micro-nutrients. Combination of soil application of Mo + CA increased Mo in leaves at V3 stage; however, Mo + CA soil application during pod-filling stage had no significant effects on Mo accumulation in seeds. The current research showed that some micro-nutrient application with the chelating agent CA could increase seed nutrients. Since these results are conducted under greenhouse experiments, further research under field conditions is needed before conclusive recommendations are made.
Cite this paper: Goli, M. , Pande, M. , Bellaloui, N. and Wrachien, D. (2015) Effects of Soil Applications of Micro-Nutrients and Chelating Agent Citric Acid on Mineral Nutrients in Soybean Seeds. Agricultural Sciences, 6, 1404-1411. doi: 10.4236/as.2015.611136.

[1]   Ash, M. (2012) Soybean and Oilseeds. United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service.

[2]   Taylor, R.D. and Won, W.K. (2013) 2013 Outlook of the U.S. and World Corn and Soybean Industries, 2012-2022. Agribusiness & Applied Economics Report No. 713, 1-27.

[3]   Messina, M. and Messina, V. (2010) The Role of Soy in Vegetarian Diets. Nutrients, 2, 855-888.

[4]   SoyaTech Growing Opportunities (2014) Soybeans and Oilseeds.

[5]   Sakthivelu, G., Devi, M.K.A., Giridhar, P., Rajasekaran, T., Ravishankar, G.A., Nikolova, M.T., Angelov, G.B., Todorova, R.M. and Kosturkova, G.P. (2008) Isoflavone Composition, Phenol Content, and Antioxidant Activity of Soybean Seeds from India and Bulgaria. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56, 2090-2095.

[6]   Potter, S.M., Baum, J.A., Teng, H.Y., Stillman, R.J., Shay, N.F. and Erdman, J.W. (1998) Soy Protein and Isoflavones: Their Effects on Blood Lipids and Bone Density in Post-Menopausal Women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 68, 1375-1379.

[7]   Messina, M.J. (1999) Legumes and Soybeans: Overview of Their Nutritional Profiles and Health Effects. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70, 439-450.

[8]   Wan, J., Liu, C.M., Liu, W., Tu, Z.C., Li, C. and Zhang, W.Q. (2010) Determination of Mineral Elements in Soybean from Different Producing Areas by ICP-AES. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi, 30, 543-555. (In Chinese)

[9]   Michelfelder, A.J. (2009) Soy: A Complete Source of Protein. American Family Physician, 79, 43-47.

[10]   Tulchinsky, T.H. (2010) Micronutrient Deficiency Conditions: Global Health Issues. Public Reviews, 32, 243-255.

[11]   Xu, Y.F., Diaoguo, An, D.G., Li, H.J. and Xu, H.X. (2011) Review: Breeding Wheat for Enhanced Micronutrients. Canadian Journal of Plant Sciences, 91, 231-237.

[12]   Goli, M.B., Pande, M. and Bellaloui, N. (2012) Effects of Chelating Agents on Protein, Oil, Fatty Acids, and Minerals in Soybean Seed. Agricultural Sciences, 3, 517-523.

[13]   Vahedi, A. (2010) Study of the Effects of Micronutrient Application on the Absorption of Macro- and Micronutrients in the Soybean Cultivar Telar in the North of Iran. Journal of American Science, 7, 1252-1257.

[14]   Yasari, E. and Vahedi, A. (2012) Micronutrients Impact on Soybean (Glycine max (Merrill)) Qualitative and Quantitative Traits. International Journal of Biology, 4, 112-118.

[15]   Simons, J.N., Swindler, R. and Benedict, H.M. (1961) Absorption of Chelated Iron by Soybean Roots in Nutrient Solutions. Physiology, 37,460-466.

[16]   Whitaker, J., Harris, G., Kemerait, R., Prostko, E., Roberts, P., Smith, N., Smith, A. and Sumner, P. (2015) Georgia Soybean Production Guide. Printing Made Possible by Georgia Agricultural Commodity Commission for Soybeans.

[17]   Environmental Protection Agency(EPA), USA Method (2007) Microwave Assisted Acid Digestion of Sediments, Sludges, Soils and Oil.

[18]   SAS (2001) SAS 9.1 TS Level 1M3, Windows Version. 5.1.2600. SAS Institute, Cary.

[19]   Stanton, M., Spann, T., Pande, M. and Goli, M. (2011) Qualitative and Quantitative Distribution of Trace Elements Found in the Leaves of the Soybean Plants that Were Exposed to Chelating Agents and Ferrous Ion. Mississippi Academy of Sciences Meeting, 75, 31.

[20]   Bellaloui, N., Hu, Y., Mengistu, A., Kassem, M.A. and Abel, C.A. (2013) Effects of Foliar Boron Application on Seed Composition, Cell Wall Boron, and Seed δ(15)N and δ(13)C Isotopes in Water-Stressed Soybean Plants. Frontiers in Plant Science, 23, 270.

[21]   Rubens, J.C. and Ricardo, S.A. (2009) Molybdenum-Enriched Soybean Seeds Enhance N Accumulation, Seed Yield and Protein Content in Brazil. Field Crops Research, 3, 219-224.

[22]   Soheil, K., Ghorban, N.M., Hosein, H.S.A., Farokh, D.K. and Babak, D. (2013) Micronutrients Distribution in Soybean Plant with Zn, Fe, and Mn Application. Annual Review & Research in Biology, 3, 83-91.

[23]   Jha, A.N. and Chandel, A.S. (1987) Response of Soybean to Zinc Application. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 32, 354-358.

[24]   Rhoads, F.M. (1984) Soybean Response to Zinc Fertilization. Soil and Crop Science Society Florida Proceeding, 43, 46-48.

[25]   Boote, K.J., Gallaher, R.N., Robertson, W.K., Hinson, K. and Hammond, L.C. (1980) Effects of Foliar Fertilization on Photosynthesis, Leaf Nutrition, and Yield of Soybean. Agronomy Journal, 72, 271-275.

[26]   Brown, J.C., Tiffin, L.O. and Holmes, R.S. (1960) Competition between Chelating Agents and Roots as Factor Affecting Absorption of Iron and Other Ions by Plant Species. Plant Physiology, 35, 878-886.

[27]   Eby, G. (2006) Stability Constants (log K1) of Various Metal Chelates. In: Furia, T.E., Ed., CRC Handbook of Food Additives, Chapter 6: Sequestrants in Foods.