Back
 JSIP  Vol.6 No.4 , November 2015
Nonparametric Spectral Estimation Technique to Estimate Dominant Frequency for Atrial Fibrillation Detection
Abstract: Atrial fibrillation (Afib) is related with heart failure, stroke, and high mortality rates. In frequency domain analysis, pre-requisite for Afib detection has been the estimation of reliable dominant frequency (DF) of atrial signals via different spectral estimation techniques. DF further characterizes Afib, and helps in its treatment. This paper aims at finding the most appropriate nonparametric FFT-based spectral estimation technique to estimate reliable DF for Afib detection. In this work, real-time intra-atrial electrograms have been acquired and pre-processed for frequency analysis. DF is estimated via Bartlett using Hanning window, and Welch methods. Regularity index (RI), a parameter to ensure reliability of DF, is calculated using Simpson 3/8 and Trapezoidal rules. The best method is declared based upon high accuracy of Afib detection using reliable DF. On comparison, Welch method is found to be more appropriate to estimate reliable DF for Afib detection with 98% accuracy.
Cite this paper: Sheikh, S. , Majoka, A. , Rehman, K. , Razzaq, N. and Zaidi, T. (2015) Nonparametric Spectral Estimation Technique to Estimate Dominant Frequency for Atrial Fibrillation Detection. Journal of Signal and Information Processing, 6, 266-276. doi: 10.4236/jsip.2015.64025.
References

[1]   Garrey, W.E. (1924) Auricular Fibrillation. Physiological Reviews, 4, 215-250.

[2]   Moe, G.K. and Abildskov, J.A. (1958) Atrial Fibrillation as a Self-Sustaining Arrhythmia Independent of Focal Discharges. American Heart Journal, 58, 59-70.

[3]   Allessie, M.A., Lammers, W.J.E.P., Bonke, F.I.M. and Hollen, S.J. (1985) Experimental Evaluation of Moe’s Multiple Wavelet Hypothesis of Atrial Fibrillation. Cardiac Electrophysiology and Arrhythmias, 265-275.

[4]   Ha?ssaguerre, M., Ja?s, P. and Shah, D.C. (1998) Spontaneous Initiation of Atrial Fibrillation by Ectopic Beats Originating in the Pulmonary Veins. New England Journal of Medicine, 339, 659-666.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199809033391003

[5]   Nademanee, K., McKenzie, J., Kosar, E., Schwab, M., Sunsaneewitayakul, B., Vasavakul, T., Khunnawat, C. and Ngarmukos, T. (2004) A New Approach for Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation: Mapping of the Electrophysiologic Substrate. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 43, 2044-2053.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2003.12.054

[6]   Ng, J. and Goldberger, J.J. (2007) Understanding and Interpreting Dominant Frequency Analysis of AF Electrograms. Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, 18, 680-685.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-8167.2007.00832.x

[7]   Ahmad, A., Schlindwein, F.S. and Ng, G.A. (2010) Comparison of Computation Time for Estimation of Dominant Frequency of Atrial Electrograms: Fast Fourier Transform, Blackman Tukey, Autoregressive and Multiple Signal Classification. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 3, 843-847.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jbise.2010.39114

[8]   Skanes, A.C., Mandapati, R., Berenfeld, O., Davidenko, J.M. and Jalife, J. (1998) Spatiotemporal Periodicity during Atrial Fibrillation in the Isolated Sheep Heart. Circulation, 98, 1236-1248.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.98.12.1236

[9]   Raine, D., Langley, P., Murray, A., Dunuwille, A. and Bourke, J.P. (2004) Surface Atrial Frequency Analysis in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: A Tool for Evaluating the Effects of Intervention. Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, 15, 1021-1026.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1540-8167.2004.04032.x

[10]   Mansour, M., Mandapati, R., Berenfeld, O., Chen, J., Samie, F.H. and Jalife, J. (2001) Left-to-Right Gradient of Atrial Frequencies during Acute Atrial Fibrillation in the Isolated Sheep Heart. Circulation, 103, 2631-2636.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.103.21.2631

[11]   Lazar, S., Dixit, S., Marchlinski, F.E., Callans, D.J. and Gerstenfeld, E.P. (2004) Presence of Left-to-Right Atrial Frequency Gradient in Paroxysmal but Not Persistent Atrial Fibrillation in Humans. Circulation, 110, 3181-3186.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000147279.91094.5E

[12]   Yoshida, K., Ogata, K., Inaba, T., Nakazawa, Y., Ito, Y., Yamaguchi, I., Kandori, A. and Aonuma, K. (2015) Ability of Magnetocardiography to Detect Regional Dominant Frequencies of Atrial Fibrillation. Journal of Arrhythmia. (In Press)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joa.2015.05.003

[13]   Sahadevan, J., Ryu, K., Peltz, L., Khrestian, C.M., Stewart, R.W., Markowitz, A.H. and Waldo, A.L. (2004) Epicardial Mapping of Chronic Atrial Fibrillation in Patients: Preliminary Observations. Circulation, 110, 3293-3299.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000147781.02738.13

[14]   Sanders, P., Berenfeld, O. and Hocini, M. (2005) Spectral Analysis Identifies Sites of High-Frequency Activity Maintaining Atrial Fibrillation in Humans. Circulation, 112, 789-797.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.104.517011

[15]   Matsuo, S., Yamane, T., Date, T., Tokutake, K.-I., Hioki, M., Ito, K., Narui, R., Tanigawa, S.-I., Tokuda, M., Yamashita, S., Inada, K., Minai, K., Komukai, K., Sugimoto, K.-I. and Yoshimura, M. (2012) Real-Time Dominant Frequency Analysis of the Pulmonary Vein in Patients with Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation. Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiolog, 35, 28-37.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-8159.2011.03259.x

[16]   Houben, R.P.M. and Allessie, M.A. (2007) Processing of Intracardiac Electrograms in Atrial Fibrillation; Diagnosis of Electropathological Substrate of AF. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, 25, 40-51.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMB-M.2006.250507

[17]   Ng, J., Kadish, A.H. and Goldberger, J.J. (2007) Technical Considerations for Dominant Frequency Analysis. Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, 18, 757-763.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-8167.2007.00810.x

[18]   Marco, L.Y.D., Raine, D., Bourke, J.P. and Langley, P. (2014) Atrial Fibrillation Type Characterization and Catheter Ablation Acute Outcome Prediction: Comparative Analysis of Spectral and Nonlinear Indices from Right Atrium Electrograms. Computing in Cardiology, 41, 817-820.

[19]   Salinet, J.L., Tuan, J.H., Sandilands, A.J., Stafford, P.J., Schlindwein, F.S. and Ng, G.A. (2014) Distinctive Patterns of DF Trajectory Behavior in Drug-Refractory Persistent AF: Preliminary Characterization of Spatio-Temporal Instability. Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, 25, 371-379.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jce.12331

[20]   Cervigón, R., Moreno, J., García-Quintanilla, J., Pérez-Villacastín, J., Millet, J. and Castells, F. (2014) Frequency Spectrum Correlation along Atria to Study Atrial Fibrillation Recurrence. Computing in Cardiology, 41, 1125-1128.

[21]   Tsai, W.-C. and Lin, Y.-J. (2012) The Frequency Analysis and the Atrial Fibrillation. Journal of Biocatalysis & Biotransformation, 1, 1-2.

[22]   Traykov, V.B., Pap, R. and Sághy, L. (2012) Frequency Domain Mapping of Atrial Fibrillation—Methodology, Experimental Data and Clinical Implications. Current Cardiology Reviews, 8, 231-238.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/157340312803217229

[23]   Lin, Y.-J., Tai, C.-T., Kao, T., Tso, H.-W. and Higa, S. (2006) Frequency Analysis in Different Types of Atrial Fibrillation. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 47, 1401-1407.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2005.10.071

[24]   Arenal, A., Datino, T., Atea, L., Atienza, F., González-Torrecilla, E., Almendral, J., Castilla, L., Sánchez, P.L. and Fernández-Aviles, F. (2009) Dominant Frequency Differences in Atrial Fibrillation Patients with and without Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction. Europace, 11, 450-457.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/eup053

[25]   Everett, T.H., Akar, J.G., Kok, L.C., Moorman, J.R. and Haines, D.E. (2010) Use of Global Atrial Fibrillation to Optimize the Success of Burst Pace Termination. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 40, 1831-1840.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0735-1097(02)02476-2

[26]   Atienza, F., Almendral, J., Moreno, J., Vaidyanathan, R., Talkachou, A., Kalifa, J., Arenal, A., Villacastín, J.P., Torrecilla, E.G., Sánchez, A., Ploutz-Snyder, R., Jalife, J. and Berenfeld, O. (2006) Activation of Inward Rectifier Potassium Channels Accelerates Atrial Fibrillation in Humans: Evidence for a Reentrant Mechanism. Circulation, 114, 2434-2442.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.633735

[27]   Ifeachor, E.C. and Jervis, B.W. (1993) Digital Signal Processing: A Practical Approach. Pearson Education Ltd., Delhi.

[28]   Bartlett, M.S. (1948) Smoothing Periodograms from Time Series with Continuous Spectra. Nature, 161, 686-687.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/161686a0

[29]   Welch, P. (1967) The Use of Fast Fourier Transform for the Estimation of Power Spectra: A Method Based on Time Averaging Over Short, Modified Periodograms. IEEE Transactions on Audio and Electroacoustics, 15, 70-73.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TAU.1967.1161901

[30]   Nagashima, K., Okumura, Y., Watanabe, I., Nakai, T., Ohkubo, K., Kofune, T., Kofune, M., Mano, H., Sonoda, K. and Hirayama, A. (2012) Effects of Inter-Electrode Spacing on Complex Fractionated Atrial Electrograms and Dominant Frequency Detection. Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology, 34, 51-57.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10840-011-9654-1

[31]   Botteron, G.W. and Smith, J.M. (1995) A Technique for Measurement of the Extent of Spatial Organization of Atrial Activation during Atrial Fibrillation in the Intact Human Heart. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 42, 579-586.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/10.387197

[32]   Burden, R.L. and Faires, J.D. (2011) Numerical Analysis. Cengage Learning, Boston.

[33]   Goldberger, A.L., Amaral, L.A.N., Glass, L., Hausdorff, J.M., Ivanov, P.C., Mark, R.G., Mietus, J.E., Moody, G.B., Peng, C.-K. and Stanley, H.E. (2000) PhysioBank, PhysioToolkit, and PhysioNet: Components of a New Research Resource for Complex Physiologic Signals. Circulation, 101, e215-e220.
http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/101/23/e215
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.cir.101.23.e215


 
 
Top