Back
 AD  Vol.4 No.1 , January 2016
Archaeoastronomical Study of the Main Pyramids of Giza, Egypt: Possible Correlations with the Stars?
Abstract: Since long time various qualitative speculations have been proposed about the link between the three major Giza pyramids and the stars. In particular, according to a popular and controversial hypothesis (the so-called Orion Correlation Theory), a perfect coincidence would exist between the mutual positions of the three stars of the Orion Belt and those of the main Giza pyramids. In the present paper, this apparent coincidence has been subjected to some statistical verifications, in order to assess the probability that the correlation between stars and pyramids, both in relative position and in luminosity/height, can be merely due to the case. These statistical analyses have been performed by means of Monte Carlo simulations and have been coupled with previous astronomical/astrophysical tests of the presumed correlation, finding that the coincidence does not seem to be fortuitous and that it is compatible with the naked-eye astrometry and photometry of the Orion Belt stars. On the contrary, unlike what stated by another popular and controversial theory (the so-called Cygnus-Giza Correlation), we have found no coincidence between the mutual positions of the three pyramids and those of the three stars of the short arm of the asterism of Northern Cross, in the Cygnus constellation.
Cite this paper: Orofino, V. and Bernardini, P. (2016) Archaeoastronomical Study of the Main Pyramids of Giza, Egypt: Possible Correlations with the Stars?. Archaeological Discovery, 4, 1-10. doi: 10.4236/ad.2016.41001.
References

[1]   Bauval, R. G. (2006). The Egypt Code. London: Century Publishing.

[2]   Bauval, R. G., & Gilbert, A. (1994). The Orion Mystery. Oxford: Heinemann.

[3]   Baux, N. (1994). Sirius étoile et jeune Horus. In C. Berger, G. Clerc, & N. Grimal (Eds.), Hommages à Jean Leclant (pp. 61-72). Le Caire: Institut Francais d’Archéologie Orientale, Biblioteque d’Etude 106/1.

[4]   Belmonte, J. A. (2001). On the Orientation of Old Kingdom Egyptian Pyramids. Journal for the History of Astronomy, 32, S1-S20.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002182860103202601

[5]   Belmonte, J. A., Shaltout, M., & Fekri, M. (2008). On the Orientation of Ancient Egyptian Temples: (4) Epilogue in Serabit el Khadem and Overview. Journal for the History of Astronomy, 39, 181-211.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002182860803900203

[6]   Collins, A. (2006). The Cygnus Mystery. London: Watkins Publishing.

[7]   Goedicke, H. (2001). Abusir-Saqqara-Giza. In M. Barta, & J. Krejci (Eds.), Abusir and Saqqara in the Year 2000 (pp. 397-412). Prague: AVCR.

[8]   Gribbin, J., & Gribbin, M. (1996). Companion to the Cosmos. London: The Orion Publishing Group.

[9]   Hardie, R. H., Heiser, A. M., & Tolbert, C. R. (1964). A Study of the B Stars in the Orion Belt Region. Astrophysical Journal, 140, 1472-1481.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/148052

[10]   Herrmann, J. (1975). Atlante di Astronomia. Milano: Mondadori.

[11]   Legon, J. A. R. (1995). The Orion Correlation and Air-Shaft Theories. Discussions in Egyptology, 33, 45-56.

[12]   Lehner, M. (1985a). The Development of the Giza Necropolis: The Khufu Project. Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archao- logischen Instituts Abteilung Kairo, 41, 109-143.

[13]   Lehner, M. (1985b). A Contextual Approach to the Giza Pyramids. Archiv für Orientforschung, 31, 136-158.

[14]   Magli, G. (2006). On the Possible Discovery of Precessional Effects in Ancient Astronomy. In R. Bauval (Ed.), The Egypt Code (Appendix 2). London: Century Publishing.
http://arxiv.org/pdf/physics/0407108

[15]   Magli, G. (2009a). Akhet Khufu: Archaeo-Astronomical Hints at a Common Project of the Two Main Pyramids of Giza, Egypt. Nexus Network Journal, 11, 35-50.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00004-008-0080-3

[16]   Magli, G. (2009b) Astronomy, Topography and Dynastic History in the Age of the Pyramid Fields of the Old Kingdom.
http://arxiv.org/abs/0903.1416

[17]   Orofino, V. (2011). Stato evolutivo delle stelle della Cintura di Orione ed implicazioni archeoastronomiche. English Version in Preparation.
http://arxiv.org/abs/1109.3284

[18]   Orofino, V. (2014). A Quantitative Astronomical Analysis of the Orion Correlation Theory.
http://arxiv.org/abs/1109.6266

[19]   Otero, S. A. (2015). Catalogo de Magnitudes Aparentes, in Preparation. (Requests Can Be Addressed to varsao@hotmail.com)

[20]   Otero, S. A., & Moon, T. (2006). The Characteristic Period of Pulsation of β Gruis. The Journal of the American Association of Variable Star Observers, 34, 156-164.

[21]   Silvestro, G. (1989). Astronomia. Torino: La Scientifica Editrice.

[22]   Spence, K. (2000). Ancient Egyptian Chronology and the Astronomical Orientation of Pyramids. Nature, 408, 320-324.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35042510

[23]   Taylor, J. R. (1982). An Introduction to Error Analysis. Mill Valley, CA: University Science Books.

[24]   Wakefield Sault, P. (2008). The Keys of Atlantis. A Study of Ancient Unified Numerical and Metrological Systems. Appendix C.
http://www.odeion.org/atlantis/appendix-c.html

 
 
Top