JDM  Vol.5 No.4 , November 2015
Use of Human Embryonic Stem Cells in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus: A Case Series
Abstract: Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM), a metabolic disorder, is known to be highly prevalent in people aged 40 - 60 years in developing countries whereas in developed countries, it mostly affects people above the age of 60 years. It is of two types: DM type I, an autoimmune disorder that mostly onsets after an infection and DM type II that is commonly associated with obesity. Several treatments are available for the treatment of DM, but none has successfully cured diabetes. Nowadays, stem cell therapy is being investigated for use in the treatment of DM and has shown positive results. Case Report: Our study presented results of three diabetic patients who were treated with human embryonic stem cell (hESC) therapy. Following the therapy, blood glucose levels were reduced. An improvement was observed in eye sight, stamina, gait pattern endurance, mental focus ability and muscle strength. There was a reduction in secondary side effects of high blood sugar such as affectation of cardiac, kidneys, polyneuropathy, vision etc. No adverse events and teratoma formation were observed after the treatment. Conclusion: It was concluded that hESCs showed good therapeutic potential in the treatment of patients with diabetes.
Cite this paper: Shroff, G. (2015) Use of Human Embryonic Stem Cells in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus: A Case Series. Journal of Diabetes Mellitus, 5, 313-318. doi: 10.4236/jdm.2015.54038.

[1]   Shaw, J.E., Sicree, R.A. and Zimmet, P.Z. (2010) Global Estimates of the Prevalence of Diabetes for 2010 and 2030. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 87, 4-14.

[2]   American Diabetes Association (2013) Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care, 36, S67-S74.

[3]   National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse (NDIC)

[4]   Harris, M.I. (2004) Definition and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus and the Criteria for Diagnosis. In: LeRoith, D., Taylor, S.I. and Olefsky, J.M., Eds., Diabetes Mellitus: A Fundamental and Clinical Text, 3rd Edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 457-467.

[5]   Forbes, J.M. and Cooper, M.E. (2013) Mechanisms of Diabetic Complications. Physiological Reviews, 93, 137-188.

[6]   Hofmann, S. and Brownlee, M. (2004) Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology of Diabetic Complications: A Unifying Mechanism. In: LeRoith, D., Taylor, S.I. and Olefsky, J.M., Eds., Diabetes Mellitus: A Fundamental and Clinical Text, 3rd Edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 1441-1456.

[7]   Davey, G.C., Patil, S.B., O’Loughlin, A. and O’Brien, T. (2014) Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Treatment for Microvascular and Secondary Complications of Diabetes Mellitus. Frontiers in Endocrinology (Lausanne), 5, 86.

[8]   Asghar, O., Al-Sunni, A., Khavandi, K., et al. (2009) Diabetic Cardiomyopathy. Clinical Science (London), 116, 741-760.

[9]   Falanga, V. (2005) Wound Healing and Its Impairment in the Diabetic Foot. The Lancet, 366, 1736-1743.

[10]   Zintzaras, E., Miligkos, M., Ziakas, P., et al. (2014) Assessment of the Relative Effectiveness and Tolerability of Treatments of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Network Meta-analysis. Clinical Therapeutics, 36, 1443-1453.

[11]   Trujillo, J.M. and Nuffer, W. (2014) GLP-1 Receptor Agonists for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Recent Developments and Emerging Agents. Pharmacotherapy, 34, 1174-1186.

[12]   Aathira, R. and Jain, V. (2014) Advances in Management of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. World Journal of Diabetes, 5, 689-696.

[13]   Shroff, G., Gupta, A. and Barthakur, J. (2014) Therapeutic Potential of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients with Cerebral Palsy. Journal of Translational Medicine, 12, 318.

[14]   Shroff, G. and Das, L. (2014) Human Embryonic Stem Cell Therapy in Cerebral Palsy Children with Cortical Visual Impairment: A Case Series of 40 Patients. Journal of Cell Science & Therapy, 5, 1.

[15]   Shroff, G. (2015) Human Embryonic Stem Cells in the Treatment of Spinocerebellar Ataxia: A Case Series. Clinical Case Reports, 5, 474-478.

[16]   Shroff, G. and Gupta, R. (2015) Human Embryonic Stem Cells in the Treatment of Patients with Spinal Cord Injury. Annals of Neurosciences, 22, 208-216.

[17]   Shroff, G. (2015) A Novel Approach of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Therapy in Treatment of Friedrich’s Ataxia. International Journal of Case Reports and Images, 6, 261-266.

[18]   Shroff, G. (2015) Establishment and Characterization of a Neuronal Cell Line Derived from a 2-Cell Stage Human Embryo: Clinically Tested Cell-Based Therapy for Neurological Disorders. International Journal of Recent Scientific Research, 6, 3730-3738.

[19]   Wu, Z., Cai, J., Chen, J., et al. (2014) Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Infusion and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Open-Label, Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. Cytotherapy, 16, 258-265.

[20]   Shroff, G. and Barthakur, J.K. (2015) Safety of Human Embryonic Stem Cells in Patients with Terminal/Incurable Conditions. Annals of Neuroscience, in Press.

[21]   Stanekzai, J., Isenovic, E.R. and Mousa, S.A. (2012) Treatment Options for Diabetes: Potential Role of Stem Cells. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 98, 361-368.

[22]   Oh, B.J., Oh, S.H., Choi, J.M., et al. (2014) Co-Culture with Mature Islet Cells Augments the Differentiation of Insulin-Producing Cells from Pluripotent Stem Cells. Stem Cell Reviews and Reports, 11, 62-74.

[23]   Assady, S., Maor, G., Amit, M., Itskovitz-Eldor, J., Skorecki, K.L. and Tzukerman, M. (2001) Insulin Production by Human Embryonic Stem Cells. Diabetes, 50, 1691-1697.

[24]   Pellegrini, S., Ungaro, F., Mercalli, A., et al. (2015) Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Differentiate into Insulin-Producing Cells Able to Engraft in Vivo. Acta Diabetologica, 52, 1025-1035.

[25]   Van Pham, P., Thi-My Nguyen, P., Thai-Quynh Nguyen, A., et al. (2014) Improved Differentiation of Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Insulin-Producing Cells by PDX-1 mRNA Transfection. Differentiation, 87, 200-208.

[26]   Gu, C., Huang, S., Gao, D., et al. (2014) Angiogenic Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cells as a Therapeutic Target for Enhancing Diabetic Wound Healing. International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds, 13, 88-93.