IJG  Vol.6 No.11 , November 2015
Comparison and Validation of the Recent Freely Available DEMs over Parts of the Earth’s Lowest Elevation Area: Dead Sea, Jordan
ABSTRACT
The present research study assesses the accuracy of two recent freely available ASTER-GDEM ver.2, SRTM ver.4.1 digital elevation models for parts of the lowest area on the earth on the shores of the Dead Sea, the site located over areas with high variation in topography within the “humratessahan” watershed, where the elevation varies between 700 m above sea level in the north east of the watershed to 210 meter below sea level. The reference elevation data used in this study are topographical points extracted from existing digital vector topographical map published by Royal Jordanian Geographical Center (RJGC). However, the contour lines do not cover the whole area especially in the flat areas where elevation is less than the contour line interval. Therefore, the second reference data created with photogrammetric techniques from stereoscopic pairs of aerial photos had been used for the surface to surface comparison and elevation profiles assessment purpose. It is demonstrated that the vertical accuracy of ASTER-GDEM ver.2 is 22.223 m (Root Mean Square Error (RMSE)) against reference elevation data, while the SRTM ver.4.1 has an RMSE of 15.858 m; the statistics results indicate that the theoretical accuracy is achievable and meets the expected accuracy specification. Furthermore, as for its unprecedented detail, it is believed that the photogrammetric derived DEM offers an alternative in accessibility to high-quality elevation data with vertical accuracy of 0.78 m (Root Mean Square Error (RMSE)).

Cite this paper
Al-Fugara, A. (2015) Comparison and Validation of the Recent Freely Available DEMs over Parts of the Earth’s Lowest Elevation Area: Dead Sea, Jordan. International Journal of Geosciences, 6, 1221-1232. doi: 10.4236/ijg.2015.611096.
References
[1]   Snehmani, S.M.K., Gupta, R.D. and Ganju, A. (2013) Extraction of High Resolution DEM from Cartosat-1 Stereo Imagery Using Rational Math Model and Its Accuracy Assessment for a Part of Snow Covered NW-Himalaya. Journal of Remote Sensing and GIS (JORSG), 4, 23-34.

[2]   U.S. Geological Survey Rocky Mountain Research Centere (2001) Digital Elevation Models: USGS Digital Elevation Model Information. http://rockyweb.cr.usgs.gov/elevation/dpi_dem.html

[3]   Blaschke, T. and Strobl, J. (2003) Defining Landscape Units through Integrated Morphometric Characteristics. In: Buhmann, E. and Ervin, S., Eds., Landscape Modelling: Digital Techniques for Landscape Architecture, Wichmann-Verlag, Heidelberg, 104-113

[4]   Akbari, A., Noram, B.R. and Ngien, S.K. (2010) Application of Public Domain Satellite-Based DEMs in Natural Hazard Modeling. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, 7, 140-144. http://dx.doi.org/10.7763/IJESD.2016.V7.756

[5]   Al-Fugara, A., Billa, L., Pradhan, B., Mohamed, T. and Rawashdeh, S. (2011) Coupling of Hydrodynamic Model and Aerial Photogrammetry-Derived Digital Surface Model for Flood Simulation Scenarios Using GIS: Kuala Lumpur Flood, Malaysia. Disaster Advances, 4, 20-28.

[6]   Al-Kouri, O., Al-Fugara, A., Rawashdeh, S., Balqies, S. and Biswajeet, B. (2013) Geospatial Modeling for Sinkholes Hazard Map Based on GIS & RS Data. Journal of Geographic Information System, 5, 584-592. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jgis.2013.56055

[7]   Moore, I.D., Grayson, R.B. and Ladson, A.R. (1991) Digital Terrain Modelling: A Review of Hydrological, Geomorphological, and Biological Applications. Hydrological Processes, 5, 3-30.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hyp.3360050103

[8]   Taud, H., Parrot, J. and Alvarez, R. (1999) DEM Generation by Contour Line Dilation. Computers & Geosciences, 25, 775-783. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0098-3004(99)00019-9

[9]   Wilson, J.P. and Gallant, J.C. (2000) Terrain Analysis Principles and Applications. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

[10]   Schenk, T. (1996) Digital Aerial Triangulation. Archives of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 31, 735-745.

[11]   Hohle, J. (2009) DEM Generation Using a Digital Large Format Frame Camera. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, 75, 87-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.14358/PERS.75.1.87

[12]   Favey, E., Geiger, A., Gudmundsson, G.H. and Wehr, A. (2003) Evaluating the Potential of an Airborne Laser-Scanning System for Measuring Volume Changes of Glaciers. Geografiska Annaler, Series A: Physical Geography, 81, 555-561. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0435-3676.1999.00083.x

[13]   Kervyn, F. (2001) Modelling Topography with SAR Interferometry: Illustrations of a Favourable and Less Favourable Environment. Computers & Geosciences, 27, 1039-1050.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0098-3004(00)00158-8

[14]   Massonnet, D. and Elachi, C. (2006) High-Resolution Land Topography. Comptes Rendus Geoscience, 338, 1049-1062. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crte.2006.06.001

[15]   Farr, T.G., Rosen, P.A., Caro, E., Crippen, R., Duren, R., Hensley, S., Kobrick, M., Paller, M., Rodriguez, E., Roth, L., Seal, D., Shaffer, S., Shimada, J., Umland, J., Werner, M., Oskin, M., Burbank, M. and Alsdorf, D. (2007) The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Reviews of Geophysics, 45, Article ID: RG2004. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2005RG000183

[16]   Falorni, G., Teles, V., Vivoni, E.R., Bras, R.L. and Amaratunga, K. (2005) Analysis and Characterization of the Vertical Accuracy of Digital Elevation Models from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110, Article ID: F02005. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2003jf000113

[17]   ASTER GDEM Validation Team, Tachikawa, T., Kaku, M., Iwasaki, A., Gesch, D., Oimoen, M., Zhang, Z., Danielson, J., Krieger, T., Curtis, B., Hasse, J., Abrams, M., Crippen, R., Hirano, A., Welch, R. and Lang, H. (2003) Mapping from ASTER Stereo Image Data: DEM Validation and Accuracy Assessment. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 57, 356-370.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0924-2716(02)00164-8

[18]   Guth, P.L. (2006) Geomorphometry from SRTM. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, 72, 269-277. http://dx.doi.org/10.14358/pers.72.3.269

[19]   Miliaresis, G.C. and Paraschou, C.V.E. (2011) An Evaluation of the Accuracy of the ASTER GDEM and the Role of Stack Number: A Case Study of Nisiros Island, Greece. Remote Sensing Letters, 2, 127-135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01431161.2010.503667

[20]   Suwandana, E., Kawamura, K., Sakuno, Y., Kustiyanto, E. and Raharjo, B. (2012) Evaluation of ASTER GDEM2 in Comparison with GDEM1, SRTM DEM and Topographic-Map-Derived DEM Using Inundation Area Analysis and RTK-dGPS Data. Remote Sensing, 4, 2419-2431. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/rs4082419

[21]   Mukherjee, S., Joshi, P.K., Mukherjee, S., Ghosh, A., Garg, R.D. and Mukhopadhyay, A. (2013) Evaluation of Vertical Accuracy of Open Source Digital Elevation Model (DEM). International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 21, 205-217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2012.09.004

[22]   Rexer, M. and Hirt, C. (2014) Comparison of Free High Resolution Digital Elevation Data Sets (ASTER GDEM2, SRTM v2.1/v4.1) and Validation against Accurate Heights from the Australian National Gravity Database. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 61, 213-226.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08120099.2014.884983

[23]   Hirt, C., Filmer, M.S. and Featherstone, W.E. (2010) Comparison and Validation of the Recent Freely Available ASTER-GDEM Ver1, SRTM Ver4.1 and GEODATA DEM-9s Ver3 Digital Elevation Models over Australia. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 57, 337-347.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08120091003677553

[24]   Jarvis, A., Reuter, H.I., Nelson, A. and Guevara, E. (2008) Hole-Filled SRTM for the Globe Version 4. CGIAR-CSI SRTM 90 m Database. http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org

[25]   Maune, D.F., Maitra, J.B. and McKay, E.J. (2007) Accuracy Standards & Guidelines. In: Maune, D., Ed., Digital Elevation Model Technologies and Applications: The DEM Users Manual, 2nd Edition, American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Bethesda, 65-97.

[26]   Ghilani, C.D. and Wolf, P.R. (2006) Adjustment Computations: Spatial Data Analysis. 4th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken.

[27]   Congalton, R.G. and Green, K. (1999) Assessing the Accuracy of Remotely Sensed Data Principles and Practices. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton.

[28]   Slater, J.A., Heady, B., Kroenung, G., Curtis, W., Haase, J., Hoegemann, D., Schockley, C. and Tracy, K. (2009) Evaluation of the new ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. http://www.ersdac.or.jp/GDEM/E/image/ASTERGDEM_444ValidationSummaryReport_Ver1.pdf

[29]   Abrams, M., Bailey, B., Tsu, H. and Hato, M. (2010) The ASTER Global DEM. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 76, 344-348.

[30]   Bolten, A. and Waldhoff, G. (2010) Error Estimation of ASTER GEODEM for Regional Applications—Comparison on ASTER DEM and ALS Elevation Models. Proceedings of the 3rd ISDE Digital Earth Summit, Nessebar, 12-14 June 2010.

[31]   Sertel, E. (2010) Accuracy Assessment of ASTER Global DEM over Turkey. Proceedings of the ASPRS/CaGIS 2010 Fall Specialty Conference, Orlando, 15-19 November 2010.

[32]   Hensley, S., Rosen, P. and Gurrola, E. (2000) Topographic Map Generation from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission C-Band SCANSAR Interferometry. Proceedings of the SPIE, 412, 179-189.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.410596

[33]   Welch, R. (1980) Measurements from Linear Array Camera Images. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 46, 315-318.

[34]   Giuseppe, P. and Francesco, F. (2013) DEM Extraction from Archive Aerial Photos: Accuracy Assessment in Areas of Complex Topography. European Journal of Remote Sensing, 46, 363-378.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5721/EuJRS20134621

[35]   Kamaratakis, E.K. and Chrysoulakis, N. (2006) SRTM vs. ASTER Elevation Products. Comparison for Two Regions in Crete, Greece. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 27, 4819-4838.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01431160600835853

[36]   Jacobsen, K. and Passini, R. (2010) Analysis Faster GDEM Elevation Models. Proceedings of the ISPRS TC 1 Symposium, Calgary, 15-18 June 2010.

[37]   Li, P., Shi, C., Li, Z., Muller, J.P., Drummond, J., Li, X., Li, T., Li, Y. and Liu, J. (2013) Evaluation of ASTER GDEM Using GPS Benchmarks and SRTM in China. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 34, 1744-1771. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01431161.2012.726752

[38]   Fujisada, H., Bailey, G.B., Kelly, G.G., Hara, S. and Abrams, M.J. (2005) ASTER DEM Performance. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 43, 2707-2714.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2005.847924

[39]   Rodriguez, E., Morris, C.S. and Belz, J.E. (2006) A Global Assessment of the SRTM Performance. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 72, 249-260.
http://dx.doi.org/10.14358/PERS.72.3.249

 
 
Top