MSCE  Vol.3 No.11 , November 2015
Synthesis of ZnS, CdS and Core-Shell Mixed CdS/ZnS, ZnS/CdS Nanocrystals in Tapioca Starch Matrix
Gel of tapioca starch (TS) is a suitable matrix for the formation of ZnS, CdS and core-shell ZnS/CdS as well as CdS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs). These QDs reside in the matrix as non-agglomerating 3 - 10 nm nanocrystals. It is demonstrated that amylopectin is responsible for the QDs formation rather than amylose. Combination of ZnS with CdS in the core-shell QDs results in the increase in the intensity of emission without any shift of its wavelength.

Cite this paper
Khachatryan, K. , Khachatryan, G. and Fiedorowicz, M. (2015) Synthesis of ZnS, CdS and Core-Shell Mixed CdS/ZnS, ZnS/CdS Nanocrystals in Tapioca Starch Matrix. Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, 3, 30-38. doi: 10.4236/msce.2015.311005.
[1]   Reiss, P., Protière, M. and Li, L. (2009) Core/Shell Semiconductor Nanocrystals. Small, 5, 154-168.

[2]   van Driel, A.F., Allan, G., Delerue, C., Lodahl, P., Vos, W.L. and Vanmaekelbergh, D. (2005) Frequency-Dependent Spontaneous Emission Rate from CdSe and CdTe Nanocrystals: Influence of Dark States. Physical Review Letters, 95, 236804-236808.

[3]   Wang, Y.X., Fan, H.G., Wang, D.D. and Lang, J.H. (2008) Low Temperature Synthesis and Characterization of ZnO Quantum Dots. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 463, 92-95.

[4]   Murray, C.B., Kagan, C.R. and Bawendi, M.G. (2000) Syntesis and Characterization of Monodisperse Nanocrystals and Close-Packed Nanocrystal Assemblies. Annual Review of Materials Science, 30, 545-610.

[5]   Qi, L., Ma, J., Cheng, H. and Zhao, Z. (1996) Synthesis and Characterization of Mixed CdS/ZnS Nanoparticles in Reverse Micelles. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 111, 195-202.

[6]   Dabbousi, B.O., Rodriguez-Viejo, J., Mikulec, F.V., Heine, J.R., Mattoussi, H., Ober, R., Jensen, K.F. and Bawendi, M.G. (1997) (CdSe)ZnS Core-Shell Quantum Dots:Synthesis and Characterization of a Size Series of Highly Luminescent Nanocrystallites. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 101, 9463-9475.

[7]   Peng, X., Schlamp, M.C., Kadavanich, A.V. and Alivisatos, A.P. (1997) Epitaxial Growth of Highly Luminescent CdSe/CdS Core/Shell Nanocrystals with Photostability and Electronic Accessibility. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 119, 7019-7029.

[8]   Loukanov, A.R., Dushkin, C.D., Papazova, K.I., Kirov, A.V., Abrashev, M.V. and Adachi, E. (2004) Photoluminescence Depending on the ZnS Shell Thickness of CdS/ZnS Core-Shell Semiconductor Nanoparticles. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 245, 9-14.

[9]   Itoh, J. and Osamura, R.Y. (2007) Quantum Dots for Multicolor Tumor Pathology and Multispectral Imaging. Methods in Molecular Biology, 374, 29-42.

[10]   Gao, X., Chung, L.W. and Nie, S. (2007) Quantum Dots for in Vivo Molecular and Cellular Imaging. Methods in Molecular Biology, 374, 135-145.

[11]   Frangioni, J.V., Kim, S.-W., Ohnishi, S., Kim, S. and Bawendi, M.G. (2007) Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping with Type-II Quantum Dots. Methods in Molecular Biology, 374, 147-159.

[12]   Manzoor, K., Johny, S., Thomas, D., Setua, S., Menon, D. and Nair, S. (2009) Bio-Conjugated Luminescent Quantum Dots of Doped ZnS: A Cyto-Friendly System for Targeted Cancer Imaging. Nanotechnology, 20, Article ID: 065102.

[13]   Ornberg, R.L. and Liu, H. (2007) Immunofluorescent Labeling of Proteins in Cultured Cells with Quantum Dot Secondary Antibody Conjugates. Methods in Molecular Biology, 374, 3-10.

[14]   Lidke, D.S., Nagy, P., Jovin, T.M. and Arndt-Jovin, D.J. (2007) Biotin-Ligand Complexes with Streptavidin Quantum Dots for in Vivo Cell Labeling of Membrane Receptors. Methods in Molecular Biology, 374, 69-79.

[15]   Jaiswal, J.K. and Simon, S.M. (2007) Optical Monitoring of Single Cells Using Quantum Dots. Methods in Molecular Biology, 374, 93-104.

[16]   Deerinck, T.J., Giepmans, B.N., Smarr, B.L., Martone, M.E. and Ellisman, M.E. (2007) Light and Electron Microscopic Localization of Multiple Proteins Using Quantum Dots. Methods in Molecular Biology, 374, 43-53.

[17]   Bozuyigues, C., Levi, S., Triller, A. and Dahan, M. (2007) Single Quantum Dot Tracking of Membrane Receptors. Methods in Molecular Biology, 374, 81-91.

[18]   Gu, W., Pellegrino, T., Park, W.J., Boudreau, R., Gros, M.A., Aliviasatos, A.P. and Larabell, C.A. (2007) Measuring Cell Motility Using Quantum Dot Probes. Methods in Molecular Biology, 374, 125-131.

[19]   Geho, D.H., Killian, J.K., Nandi, A., Pastor, J., Gurnani, P. and Rosenblatt, K.P. (2007) Fluorescence-Based Analysis of Cellular Protein Lysate Arrays Using Quantum Dots. Methods in Molecular Biology, 374, 229-237.

[20]   Freeman, R. and Willner, I. (2009) NAD+/NADH-Sensitive Quantum Dots: Applications to Probe NAD+-Dependent Enzymes and to Sense the RDX Explosive. Nano Letters, 9, 322-326.

[21]   Goldman, E.R., Uyeda, H.T., Hayhurst, A. and Mattoussi, H. (2007) Luminescent Biocompatible Quantum Dots. Methods in Molecular Biology, 374, 207-227.

[22]   Zhang, B.B., Liang, X.F., Hao, L.J., Cheng, J., Gong, X.Q., Liu, X.H., Ma, G.P. and Chang, J. (2009) Quantum Dots/ Particle-Based Immunofluorescence Assay: Synthesis, Characterization and Application. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, 94, 45-50.

[23]   Vu, T.Q., Maddipati, R., Blute, T.A., Nehilla, B.J., Nusblat, L. and Desai, T.A. (2005) Peptide-Conjugated Quantum Dots Activate Neuronal Receptors and Initiate Downstream Signaling of Neurite Growth. Nano Letters, 5, 603-607.

[24]   Ornberg, R.L., Harper, T.F. and Liu, H. (2005) Western Blot Analysis with Quantum Dot Fluorescence Technology: A Sensitive and Quantitative Method for Multiplexed Proteomics. Nature Methods, 2, 79-81.

[25]   Sarkar, A., Robertson, R.B. and Fernandez, J.M. (2004) Simultaneous Atomic Force Microscope and Fluorescence Measurements of Protein Unfolding Using a Calibrated Evanescent Wave. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101, 12882-12886.

[26]   Pinaud, F., King, D., Moore, H.P. and Weiss, S. (2004) Bioactivation and Cell Targeting of Semiconductor CdSe/ ZnSnanocrystals with Phytochelatin-Related Peptides. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 126, 6115-6123.

[27]   Gokarna, A., Lee, S.K., Hwang, J.S., Cho, Y.H., Lim, Y.T., Chung, B.H. and Lee, M. (2008) Fabrication of CdSe/ZnS Quantum-Dot-Conjugated Protein Microarray and Nanoarrays. Journal of the Korean Physical Society, 3, 3047-3050.

[28]   Bardelang, D., Zaman, M.B., Moudrakovski, I.L., Pawsey, S., Margeson, J.C., Wang, D.S., Wu, X.H., Ripmeester, J.A., Ratcliffe, C.I. and Yu, K. (2008) Interfacing Supramolecular Gels and Quantum Dots with Ultrasound: Smart Photoluminescent Dipeptide Gels. Advanced Materials, 20, 4517-4520.

[29]   Rebilly, J.N., Gardner, P.W., Darling, G.R., Bacsa, J. and Rosseinsky, M.J. (2008) Chiral II-VI Semiconductor Nanostructure Superlattices Based on an Amino Acid Ligand. Inorganic Chemistry, 47, 9390-9399.

[30]   Sutherland, A.J. (2002) Quantum Dots as Luminescent Probes in Biological Systems. Current Opinion in Solid State & Materials Science, 6, 365-370.

[31]   Li, Z., Du, Y., Zhang, Z. and Pang, D. (2003) Preparation and Characterization of CdS Quantum Dots Chitosan Biocomposite. Reactive and Functional Polymers, 55, 35-43.

[32]   Sondi, I., Siiman, O. and Matijevic, E. (2004) Synthesis of CdSe Nanoparticles in the Presence of Aminodextran as Stabilizing and Capping Agent. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 275, 503-507.

[33]   Tan, W.B. and Zhang, Y. (2005) Surface Modification of Gold and Quantum Dot Nanoparticles with Chitosan for Bioapplications. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 75, 56-62.

[34]   Wang, X.H., Du, Y.M., Ding, S., Fan, L.H., Shi, X.W., Wang, Q.Q. and Xiong, G.G. (2005) Large Two-Photon Absorbance of Chitosan-ZnS Quantum Dots Nanocomposite Film. Physica E: Low-Dimensional Systems and Nanostructures, 30, 96-100.

[35]   Nie, Q., Tan, W.B. and Zhang, Y. (2006) Synthesis and Characterization of Monodisperse Chitosan Nanoparticles with Embedded Quantum Dots. Nanotechnology, 17, 140-144.

[36]   Sun, X.L., Cui, W., Haller, C. and Chaikof, E.L. (2004) Site-Specific Multivalent Carbohydrate-Labeled Quantum Dots and Magnetic Beads. ChemBioChem, 5, 1593-1596.

[37]   Osaki, F., Kanamori, T., Sando, S., Sera, T. and Aoyama, Y. (2004) A Quantum Dot Conjugated Sugar Ball and Its Cellular Uptake. On the Size Effects of Endocytosis in the Subviral Region. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 126, 6520-6521.

[38]   Dirar, H.M.E. (2008) Strong Band-Edge Emission from ZnS Quantum Dots Stabilized by Gum Arabic. Chinese Physics Letters, 25, 4480-4481.

[39]   Cheng, Z.Y., Liu, S.H., Beines, P.W., Ding, N., Jakubowicz, P. and Knoll, W. (2008) Rapid and Highly Efficient Preparation of Water-Soluble Luminescent Quantum Dots via Encapsulation by Thermo- and Redox-Responsive Hydrogels. Chemistry of Materials, 20, 7215-7219.

[40]   Wang, C.H., Hsu, Y.S. and Peng, C.A. (2008) Quantum Dots Encapsulated with Amphiphilic Alginate as Bioprobe for Fast Screening Anti-Dengue Virus Agents. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 24, 1012-1019.

[41]   Li, H.B. and Han, C.P. (2008) Sonochemical Synthesis of Cyclodextrin-Coated Quantum Dots for Optical Detection of Pollutant Phenols in Water. Chemistry of Materials, 20, 6053-6059.

[42]   Khachatryan, G., Khachatryan, K., Stobinski, L., Tomasik, P., Fiedorowicz, M. and Lin, H.M. (2009) CdS and ZnS Quantum Dots Embedded in Hyaluronic Acid Films. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 481, 402-406.

[43]   Khachatryan, K., Khachatryan, G., Fiedorowicz, M. and Tomasik, P. (2014) Formation and Properties of Selected Quantum Dots in Maize Amylopectin Matrix. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 607, 39-43.

[44]   Lii, C.Y., Tomasik, P., Hung, W.L., Yen, M.T. and Lai, V.M.F. (2003) Granular Starches as Dietary Food and Microcapsules. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 38, 677-685.

[45]   Ciesielski, W. and Tomasik, P. (2004) Metal Complexes of Amylose and Amylopectins and Their Thermolysis. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 98, 2039-2051.