AJAC  Vol.6 No.12 , November 2015
The Study of a Simple Pine-Oil Based Laboratory Prepared and Commercial Detergents Using Conductivity Measurements
Abstract: Detergents are very important substances in everyday life as they are used in laundry services. This manuscript reports the study of the commercial and laboratory prepared pine oil-based detergents employing the critical micelle concentration (CMC) phenomenon using conductivity measurements. The two samples showed the CMC values of 0.0725 g/cm3 and 0.0920 g/cm3 for laboratory and commercial samples respectively. The effect of ionic strength was investigated using NaCl and it demonstrated a drop of CMC value of about CMC by 40% (laboratory sample) and 70% (commercial sample) while the equi-molar naphthalene increased the CMC values by about 50% (laboratory sample) and 12% (commercial sample) relative to their corresponding values under distilled water. The combined effect of equi-molar NaCl and naphthalene lowered the CMC by 5% (laboratory sample) and 30% (commercial sample). These differences could signify the superiority of the laboratory sample in that it is somehow buffered against drastic changes in the CMC under different conditions. The relationship between conductivity and the CMC values does not show sufficient linearity (R2 < 0.8403) suggesting different mechanisms of interactions between NaCl and naphthalene. Overall, the results are gratifying to the small-scale manufacturer who supplied the preparation protocol for laboratory sample preparation, in two respects: they inspire some degree of confidence in his product as well as enabling the manufacturer to employ the same protocol for his quality control practices as such improve product consistency and hence profitability.
Cite this paper: George, M. and Motsamai, T. (2015) The Study of a Simple Pine-Oil Based Laboratory Prepared and Commercial Detergents Using Conductivity Measurements. American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 6, 957-964. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2015.612091.

[1]   Scharf, W. and Malerich, C. Technocal Lecture, Natural Sciences/Chemistry, Baruch College, New York.

[2]   National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning (NPTEL) (n.d.) Chemical Technology (Organic) Module IV.

[3]   Pavia, D.L., Lampaman, G.M., Kriz, G.S. and Engel, R.G. (2007) Introduction to Organic Laboratory Techniques. 4th Edition, Thomson Brooks/Cole, Washington DC, 243.

[4]   Smithson, H.L. (1965) Light Duty Liquid Detergent. United States Patent No. US3175978 A.

[5]   Batchelor, N.S. (2013) Laundry Detergent Compositions Comprising Polyalkoxylated Polyethyleneimine. World Patent Application No.WO2013171210.

[6]   Griffin, W.C. (1949) Classification of Surface-Active Agents by “HLB”. The Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists, 1, 311-326.

[7]   Shinoda, K. (1969) The Comparison between the PIT System and HLB-Value System to Emulsifier Selection. Proceedings of the 5th International Congress of Surface Activity, Barcelona, 2, 275-283.

[8]   Mukerjee, P. and Mysels, K.J. (1971) National Institute of Standards and Technology: NSRDS-NBS 36. Washington DC.

[9]   Orafidiya, L.O. and Oladimeji, F.A. (2002) Determination of the Required HLB Values of Some Essential Oils. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 237, 241-249.

[10]   Pasquali, R.C., Taurozzi, M.P. and Bregni, C. (2008) Some Considerations about the Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance System. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 356, 44-51.

[11]   Khan, A.S. and Shah, S.S. (2008) Determination of Critical Micelle Concentration (Cmc) of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate. (SDS) and the Effect of Low Concentration of Pyrene on Its Cmc Using ORIGIN Software. Journal of Chemical Society of Pakistan, 30, 186-191.

[12]   Dominguez, A., Fernandez, A., Gonzalez, N., Iglesias, E. and Montenego, L. (1997) Determination of Critical Micelle Concentration of Some Surfactants by Three Techniques. Journal of Chemical Education, 74, 1227-1231.

[13]   Dongherty, E.V.A. and Dennis, A. (2006) Physical Organic Chemistry. University Science Books, Sausalito.

[14]   Prazeres, T.J.V., Beija, M., Fernandes, F.V., Marcelino, P.G.A., Farinha, J.P.S. and Martinho, J.M.G. (2012) Determination of the Critical Micelle Concentration of Surfactants Block Copolymers Using Coumarin 153. Inorganica Chimica Acta, 381, 181-187.

[15]   Lincolnwood, B.S., Buffalo Grove, I.R. and Mundelein, A.M. (1999) Heavy Duty Liquid Detergent Compositions Comprising Salts of α-Sulfonated Fatty Acid Methyl Esters and Use of α-Sulphonated Fatty Acid Salts to Inhibit Redeposition of Soil on Fabric. United States Patent No. 5945394.

[16]   Calbiochem. EMD Biosciences.

[17]   George, M.J. and Ramollo, N. (2014) A Study of the Dynamics of Copper(II) Ions Uptake from Aqueous Solutions by Human Hair Using Conductivity and pH Measurements. European Chemical Bulletin, 3, 883-887.

[18]   Kaufmann, T.C., Engel, A. and Rémigy, H.-W. (2006) A Novel Method for Detergent Concentration Determination. Biophysical Journal, 90, 310-317.

[19]   Tyowua, A.T., Yiase, S.G. and Wuanna, R.A. (2012) Manipulation of Concentration-Conductivity Data of Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate and Sodium Dodecylbenzene Sulphonate in KCl Solution in Relation to Micellisation Parameters. Chemical Sciences Journal, 79, 1-9.

[20]   Fuguet, E., Rafols, C., Roses, M. and Bosch, E. (2005) Critical Micelle Concentration of Aqueous Buffered and Unbuffered Systems. Analytica Chimica Acta, 548, 95-100.

[21]   Strnadová, H. and Kvítek, L. (2005) Micellar Systems—Factors Influencing Critical Micelle Concentration and Measuring Methods. In: Kamení?ek, J. and ?ev?ík, J., Eds., Collected Reports of the Natural Science Faculty, Palacky University of Olomouc, AUPO Chemica, 44, 7-24.

[22]   Saien, J. and Asadabadi, S. (2014) Salting out Effects on Adsorption and Micellization of Three Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids at Liquid-Liquid Interface. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 444, 138-143.