Health  Vol.7 No.11 , November 2015
Prostate Cancer Diagnostic and Evaluation in Gaza-Strip, Palestine
ABSTRACT
Prostate cancer has the third highest cancer incidence in Palestinian men with incidence rate about 4.5/100,000, and an increase in new cases by 50% between 2000 and 2015. Prostate cancer death rates have been obviously decreased in many countries due to treatment, precise screening. The current study aims to review and evaluate the new diagnosed prostate cancer in the Gaza Strip, Palestine. As a cross-sectional, quantitative and analytical approach based on structured review, the current study was conducted at Al-Shifa and European hospitals (main oncology departments in governmental hospitals). Interviews with newly diagnosed cancer prostate patients were carried out during the period of March and June, 2014; a total of 41 newly diagnosed with primary cancer prostate. Furthermore, demographic, health status, medical investigations and tests are reported from oncologists and hospital archives over the last five years (2010-2014). The current study showed that there were 41 new prostate cancer cases in three months with incidence rate 5.1 per 100,000. The highest rate of incidence was among the patients above age of 70+, 70 - 74 (29.3%). The results showed that 58.1% of the patients were smokers, and 22.6% used to smoke, while 16.1% responded they don’t smoke at all. The most common type of treatment used by participants was chemotherapy therapy followed by hormonal therapy and prostatectomy. The least common methods used for treatment were radiation therapy and combination of hormonal, radiation, and chemotherapy as only 5 participants used each type of these treatment options. The prevalence of prostate cancer was higher among men who lived in Gaza Governorate compared to other governorates. Limited use of radiation therapy was due to the unavailability of this treatment in Gaza Strip.

Cite this paper
Alajerami, Y. , Abushab, K. , Alagha, S. , Beeram, A. , Najim, A. and Roentgen, &. (2015) Prostate Cancer Diagnostic and Evaluation in Gaza-Strip, Palestine. Health, 7, 1552-1559. doi: 10.4236/health.2015.711169.
References
[1]   Scanlon, V.C. and Sanders, T. (2012) Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology. 6th Edition, Pearson, London.

[2]   Tsukise, A. and Yamada, K. (1984) Complex Carbohydrates in the Secretory Epithelium of the Goat Prostate. The Histochemical Journal, 16, 311-319.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf01003614

[3]   Middleton, R.G., Thompson, I.M., Austenfeld, M.S., Cooner, W.H., Correa, R.J., Gibbons, R.P., et al. (1995) Prostate Cancer Clinical Guidelines Panel Summary Report on the Management of Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer. The Journal of Urology, 154, 2144-2148.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5347(01)66718-1

[4]   National Cancer Institute (2015) Personal Communication.

[5]   Thompson, I.M., Goodman, P.J., Tangen, C.M., Lucia, M.S., Miller, G.J., Ford, L.G., et al. (2003) The Influence of Finasteride on the Development of Prostate Cancer. The New England Journal of Medicine, 349, 215-524.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa030660

[6]   Walsh, P.C., Epstein, L.I. and Lowe, F.C. (1987) Potency Following Radical Prostatectomy with Wide Unilateral Excision of the Neurovascular Bundle. The Journal of Urology, 138, 823-827.

[7]   Talcott, J.A., Rieker, P., Clark, J.A., et al. (1998) Patient-Reported Symptoms after Primary Therapy for Early Prostate Cancer: Results of a Prospective Cohort Study. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 16, 275-283.

[8]   Helgason, A.R., Arver, S., Adolfsson, J., Dickman, P., Granath, F. and Steineck, G. (1998) “Potency”: The Validation of Information from a Self-Administered Questionnaire Using Objective Measurements of Night-Time Erections and Test-Retest Reliability. The Journal of Urology, November, 1946-1947.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005392-199811000-00117

[9]   Perez, M.A., Meyerowitz, B.E., Lieskovsky, G., Skinner, D.G., Reynolds, B. and Skinner, E.C. (1997) Quality of Life and Sexuality Following Radical Prostatectomy in Patients with Prostate Cancer Who Use or Do Not Use Erectile Aids. Urology, 50, 740-746.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0090-4295(97)00327-0

[10]   Smith, D., et al. (2000) Quality-of-Life Outcomes for Men with Prostate Carcinoma Detected by Screening. Cancer, 88, 1454-1463.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000315)88:6<1454::AID-CNCR25>3.0.CO;2-S

[11]   Stanford, J., et al. (2000) Urinary and Sexual Function after Radical Prostatectomy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer. JAMA, 283, 354-360.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.283.3.354

[12]   Clark, J.A., Rieker, P., Propert, K.J. and Talcott, J.A. (1999) Changes in Quality of Life Following Treatment for Early Prostate Cancer. Urology, 53, 161-168.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0090-4295(98)00457-9

[13]   Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (2014) State of Palestine.

[14]   Walsh, P.C., DeWeese, T.L. and Eisenberger, M.A. (2007) Clinical Practice. Localized Prostate Cancer. The New England Journal of Medicine, 357, 2696-2705.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMcp0706784

[15]   Wilt, T.J., MacDonald, R., Rutks, I., Shamliyan, T.A., Taylor, B.C. and Kane, R.L. (2008) Systematic Review: Comparative Effectiveness and Harms of Treatments for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer. Annals of Internal Medicine, 148, 435-448.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-148-6-200803180-00209

[16]   Wolf, A.M., Wender, R.C., Etzioni, R.B., Thompson, I.M., D’Amico, A.V. and Volk, R.J. (2010) American Cancer Society Guideline for the Early Detection of Prostate Cancer. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 60, 70-98.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3322/caac.20066

[17]   Abu-El-Noor, N. (2011) Barriers to Health Care Utilization Facing Prostate Cancer Survivors Living in Gaza Strip. The Islamic University Journal (Series of Natural Studies and Engineering), 19, 1-21.
http://www.iugaza.edu.ps/ar/periodical/

[18]   Farkhondeh, P. (2015) Relative Telomere Length Is Associated with Azoospermia in Iranian Men Comparing Healthy Fertile Subjects. 4th International Conference on Urology, Barcelona, 20-22 July 2015.
http://urology.conferenceseries.com/abstract/2015/relative-telomere-length

[19]   Arafa, M.A., Rabah, D.M., Wahdan, I.H. (2012) Awareness of General Public towards Cancer Prostate and Screening Practice in Arabic Communities: A Comparative Multi-Center Study. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 13, 4321-4326.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.9.4321

[20]   Moyer, V.A. (2012) Screening for Prostate Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Annals of Internal Medicine, 157, 120-134.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-157-2-201207170-00459

[21]   Sanda, M.G., Dunn, R.L., Michalski, J., Sandler, H.M., Northouse, L., Hembroff, L., et al. (2008) Quality of Life and Satisfaction with Outcome among Prostate-Cancer Survivors. The New England Journal of Medicine, 358, 1250-1261.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa074311

[22]   Schroder, F.H., Hugosson, J., Roobol, M.J., Tammela, T.L., Ciatto, S., Nelen, V., et al. (2009) Screening and Prostate-Cancer Mortality in a Randomized European Study. The New England Journal of Medicine, 360, 1320-1328.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa0810084

[23]   Andriole, G.L., Crawford, E.D., Grubb, R.L. Buys, S.S., Chia, D., Church, T.R., et al. (2009) Mortality Results from a Randomized Prostate-Cancer Screening Trial. The New England Journal of Medicine, 360, 1310-1319.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa0810696

[24]   Antonarakis, E.S. and Eisenberger, M.A. (2011) Expanding Treatment Options for Metastatic Prostate Cancer. The New England Journal of Medicine, 364, 2055-2058.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMe1102758

[25]   Aikawa, K., Yamaguchi, O., Oguro, T., et al. (2012) New Classification for Men with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Cluster Analysis Using the International Prostate Symptom Score. BJU International, 110, 408-412.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10771.x

[26]   Ali, M. (2011) Clinical Presentation, Pathological Pattern and Treatment Options of Prostate Cancer at Al-Azhar University Hospitals Over the Last 30 Years. African Journal of Urology, 17, 135-140.

[27]   Johansson, J.-E., Holmberg, L., Johansson, S., Bergstrom, R. and Adami, H.-O. (1997) Fifteen-Year Survival in Prostate Cancer: A Prospective, Population-Based Study in Sweden. JAMA, 277, 467-471.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1997.03540300035030

[28]   Kirsh, V.A., Peters, U., Mayne, S.T., et al. (2007) Prospective Study of Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Risk of Prostate Cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 99, 1200-1209.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djm065

[29]   Galeone, C., Pelucchi, C., Levi, F., et al. (2006) Onion and Garlic Use and Human Cancer. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 84, 1027-1032.

[30]   Hsing, A.W., Chokkalingam, A.P., Gao, Y.T., et al. (2002) Allium Vegetables and Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Population-Based Study. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 94, 1648-1651.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/94.21.1648

[31]   Wolk, A. (2005) Diet, Lifestyle and Risk of Prostate Cancer. Acta Oncologica, 44, 277-281.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02841860510029572

[32]   Giovannucci, E. (2002) A Review of Epidemiologic Studies of Tomatoes, Lycopene, and Prostate Cancer. Experimental Biology and Medicine (Maywood), 227, 852-859.

[33]   Vance, T.M., Su, J., Fontham, E.T., Koo, S.I. and Chun, O.K. (2013) Dietary Antioxidants and Prostate Cancer: A Review. Nutrition and Cancer, 65, 793-801.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2013.806672

[34]   Holick, M.F. and Chen, T.C. (2008) Vitamin D Deficiency: A Worldwide Problem with Health Consequences. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 87, 1080S-1086S.

[35]   Swami, S., Krishnan, A.V. and Feldman, D. (2011) Vitamin D Metabolism and Action in the Prostate: Implications for Health and Disease. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 347, 61-69.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2011.05.010

[36]   Schwartz, G.G. (2014) Vitamin d in Blood and Risk of Prostate Cancer: Lessons from the Selenium and Vitamin e Cancer Prevention Trial and the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 23, 1447-1449.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-0520

 
 
Top