APD  Vol.4 No.4 , November 2015
Exploring Gender-Associated Socioeconomic Differences in Parkinson’s Disease
Abstract: Background: Research on gender in Parkinson’s disease (PD) frequently focuses on clinical differences between men and women. Socioeconomic factors such as race, ethnicity, insurance type, and level of educational attainment, have not been extensively examined in relation to gender differences in PD. The goal of this study was to identify differences in PD presentation in men and women, and identify socioeconomic factors that may confound such differences. Methods: A movement disorder patient database containing 445 patients with idiopathic PD was analyzed for gender differences in motor symptoms and disease complications using linear or logistic regression. Socioeconomic variables were then evaluated as possible confounders. Results: A greater proportion of women were non-white (p < 0.05). Univariate analysis of gender, and multivariate analysis controlling for age at diagnosis and socioeconomic factors were concordant in demonstrating increased frequency of motor fluctuations and dyskinesia in women (p < 0.05). Controlled, multivariate analysis, when compared to univariate analysis, uniquely demonstrated that women were less likely to experience dementia and autonomic dysfunction, relative to men (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Women with PD are susceptible to motor fluctuations and dyskinesia, but may be relatively protected against dementia and autonomic dysfunction. Women and men with PD in our population had different socioeconomic profiles, which may have confounded some gender-associated differences.
Cite this paper: McInnis, R. , Cavanaugh, W. , Weinberg, J. , Saint-Hilaire, M. , Ellias, S. , Frank, S. and Hohler, A. (2015) Exploring Gender-Associated Socioeconomic Differences in Parkinson’s Disease. Advances in Parkinson's Disease, 4, 84-89. doi: 10.4236/apd.2015.44010.

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