AiM  Vol.5 No.12 , November 2015
Production and Testing of Biopesticide for Control of Postharvest Mold Infections on Fresh Fruits of Apple and Pear
Author(s) Yacoub A. Batta
ABSTRACT
The present research aimed at producing a biopesticide with proper formulation of invert emulsion (water-in-oil type) and effective strain of Trichoderma harzianum then, testing it against pathogens of postharvest mold infections(Botrytis cinerea & Penicillium expansum) on fresh fruits of apple and pear. The proper formulation of invert emulsion (IE#3) used for biopesticide production has the following ingredients (100% w/w): soybean oil (28.50%), coconut oil (19.50%), oil-soluble emulsifier: Tween 20 (2.0%), glycerine (4.25%), water-soluble emulsifier: dehymuls k (0.75%), sterile distilled water (22.5%) and conidial suspension of the effective strain ofT. harzianum “TrichoPAL1” in water (22.5%, concentration 1 × 107 conidia/ml). Testing efficacy of the produced biopesticide has indicated a significant reduction in the disease lesion diameter of mold infections on wounded apple and pear fruits stored at 20 ± 1 compared to the untreated fruits or control (reduction from up to 38.75 to about 7.50 mm, respectively, according to the type of mold infections and fruit type). Also, the treatment with the produced biopesticide has resulted in a long protection period from mold infections on wounded and un-wounded fresh fruits of apple and pear stored under controlled and semi-commercial conditions(up to 2.5 months according to the type of mold infections and fruit type). In conclusion, the overall results have demonstrated the effectiveness of produced biopesticide on stored fruits under controlled and semi-commercial conditions therefore, it is recommended to test this effectiveness on marketed fruits stored under variable conditions before applying it at a large scale.

Cite this paper
Batta, Y. (2015) Production and Testing of Biopesticide for Control of Postharvest Mold Infections on Fresh Fruits of Apple and Pear. Advances in Microbiology, 5, 787-796. doi: 10.4236/aim.2015.512083.
References
[1]   Eckert, J.W. and Ogawa, J.M. (1985) The Chemical Control of Postharvest Diseases: Subtropical and Tropical Fruits. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 23, 421-454. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.py.23.090185.002225

[2]   Eckert, J.W. and Ogawa, J.M. (1988) The Chemical Control of Postharvest Diseases: Deciduous Fruits, Berries, Vegetables and Root/Tuber Crops. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 26, 433-469. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.py.26.090188.002245

[3]   El-Ghaouth, A., Arul, J. and Asselin A. (1992) Antifungal Activity of Chitosan on Two Postharvest Pathogens of Strawberry Fruit. Phytopathology, 82, 398-402. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/Phyto-82-398

[4]   Tripathi, P. and Dubey, N.K. (2004) Exploitation of Natural Products as an Alternative Strategy to Control Postharvest Fungal Rotting of Fruit and Vegetables. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 32, 235-245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2003.11.005

[5]   Janisiewicz, J.W. and Korsten, L. (2002) Biological Control of Postharvest Diseases of Fruits. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 40, 411-441. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.phyto.40.120401.130158

[6]   Spadaro, D. and Gullino, M.L. (2003) State of the Art and Future Prospects of the Biological Control of Postharvest Fruit Diseases. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 91, 185-194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(03)00380-5

[7]   Butt, T.M., Jackson, C.W. and Magan, N. (2001) Fungi as Biocontrol Agents: Progress, Problems and Potential. CABI Publishing, UK, 384. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/9780851993560.0000

[8]   Sharma, D.R., Singh, D. and Singh, R. (2009) Biological Control of Postharvest Diseases of Fruits and Vegetables by Microbial Antagonists: A Review. Biological Control, 50, 205-221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2009.05.001

[9]   Wisniewski, M.E. and Wilson, C.L. (1992) Biological Control of Postharvest Diseases of Fruits and Vegetables: Recent Advances. HortScience, 27, 94-98.

[10]   Bora, L. C., Minku, D., Das, B. C. and Das, M. (2000) Influence of Microbial Antagonists and Soil Amendments on Wilt Severity and Yield of Tomato. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 70, 390-392.

[11]   Borras, D. and Aguilar, R.V. (1990) Biological Control of Penicillium digitatum on Postharvest Citrus Fruit. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 11, 179-184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0168-1605(90)90053-8

[12]   Chalutz, E., Droby, S. and Wilson, C.L. (1988) Microbial Protection against Postharvest Diseases of Citrus Fruit. Phytoparasitica, 16, 195-196.

[13]   Elad, Y. (1994) Biological Control of Grape Gray Mold by Trichoderma harzianum. Crop Protection, 13, 35-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0261-2194(94)90133-3

[14]   Connick Jr., W.J., Daigle, D.J. and Quimby Jr., P.C. (1991) An Improved Invert Emulsion with High Water Retention for Mycoherbicide Delivery. Weed Technology, 5, 442-444.

[15]   Batta, Y. (1999) Biological Effect of Two Strains of Microorganisms Antagonistic to Botrytis cinerea: Causal Organism of Gray Mold on Strawberry. An-Najah University Journal for Research A: Natural Sciences, 13, 67-83.

[16]   Batta, Y. (2001) Effect of Fungicides and Antagonistic Microorganisms on Black Fruit Spot Disease on Persimmon. Dirasat: Agricultural Sciences, 28, 165-171.

[17]   Batta, Y. (2005) Control of Alternaria Spot Disease on Loquat Using Detached Fruits and Leaf-Disk Assay. An-Najah University Journal of Research A: Natural Sciences, 19, 69-81.

[18]   Goldman, M.H. and Goldman, G.H. (1998) Trichderma harzianum Transformant Has High Extracellular Alkaline Proteinase Expression during Specific Mycoparasitic Interaction. Genetics of Molecular Biology, 21, 15-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1415-47571998000300007

[19]   Monte, E. (2001) Understanding Trichoderma: Between Biotechnology and Microbial Ecology. International Journal of Microbiology, 4, 1-4.

[20]   Benitez, T., Rincon, A.M., Limon, M.C. and Codon, N.C. (2004) Biocontrol Mechanisms of Trichderma Strains. International Microbiology, 7, 247-260

[21]   Elad, Y. (2000) Biological Control of Foliar Pathogens by Means of Trichoderma harzianum and Potential Modes of Action. Crop Protection, 19, 709-714. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0261-2194(00)00094-6

[22]   Ghisalberti, E.L. and Sivasithamparam, K. (1991) Review of Antifungal Antibiotics Produced by Trichoderma spp. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 23, 10011-1023. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0038-0717(91)90036-J

[23]   Grondona, I., Hernosa, R., Tejada, M., Gomis, M.D., Mateos, P.F., Bridge, P.D., Monte, E. and Garcia-Acha, I. (1997) Physiological and Biochemical Characterization of Trichoderma harzianum, a Biological Control Agent against Soil Borne Fungal Plant Pathogens. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 63, 3189-3198.

[24]   Schirmbock, M., Lorito, M., Wang, Y.L., Hayes, C.K., Arisan-Atac, I., Scala, F., et al. (1994) Parallel Formation and Synergism of Hydrolytic Enzymes and Peptaibol Antibiotics, Molecular Mechanisms Involved in the Antagonistic Action of Trichoderma harzianum against Phytopathogenic Fungi. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 60, 4364-4370.

[25]   Droby, S., Wsiniewski, M., El-Ghaouth, A. and Wilson, C. (2003) Biological Control of Postharvest Diseases of Fruit and Vegetables: Current Achievements and Future Challenges. Acta Horticulturae, 628, 703-713. http://dx.doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2003.628.89

[26]   Elad, Y. (2000) Trichoderma harzianum T39 Preparation for Biocontrol of Plant Diseases Control of Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Cladosporium fulvum. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 10, 499-507. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09583150050115089

[27]   Jin, X., Hayes, C.K. and Harman, G.E. (1992) Principles in the Development of Biological Control Systems Employing Trichoderma Species against Soil-Borne Plant Pathogenic Fungi. In: Leatham, G.F., Ed., Frontiers in Industrial Mycology, Mycological Society of America, Brock/Springer Series in Contemporary Bioscience, Springer, New York, 174-195. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-7112-0_12

 
 
Top