MSA  Vol.6 No.11 , November 2015
Nano Phase Characterization by Transmission Electron Microscopy: Experimental and Simulation
ABSTRACT
This paper introduces a methodology of characterization of nanostructured systems in which trans- mission electron microscopy is used as a central element of the study. Experimental studies of HREM are performed in parallel with studies in the Simula TEM program to stimulate high-resolution images and diffraction patterns. To confirm the accuracy of the results, studies of X-ray diffraction (XRD) were performed. In order to illustrate the methodology, bismuth oxide Bi2O3 nanoparticles are synthesized by a method of biosynthesis because this sample is rich in structural information.

Cite this paper
Aguirre, F. , Bazán-Díaz, L. , Mendoza-Cruz, R. , Gómez-Rodríguez, A. , Zorrilla-Cangas, C. and Herrera-Becerra, R. (2015) Nano Phase Characterization by Transmission Electron Microscopy: Experimental and Simulation. Materials Sciences and Applications, 6, 935-942. doi: 10.4236/msa.2015.611094.
References
[1]   Cabral, C., Hernandez, R., Velasco, M. and Diaz, D. (2013) Bismuth Oxide Aqueous Colloidal Nanoparticles Inhibit Candida albicans Growth and Biofilm Formation. International Journal of Nanomedicine, 8, 1645-1652.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S38708

[2]   Cabot, A., Marsal, A., Arbiol, J. and Morante, J. (2004) Bi2O3 as a Selective Sensing Material for NO Detection. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 99, 74-89.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2003.10.032

[3]   Sammes, N., Tompsett, G., Näfe, H. and Aldinger, F. (1999) Bismuth Based Oxide Electrolytes—Structure and Ionic Conductivity. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 19, 1801-1826.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0955-2219(99)00009-6

[4]   Denisov, V.N., Ivlev, A.N., Lipin, A.S., Mavrin, B.N. and Orlov, V.G. (1997) Raman Spectra and Lattice Dynamics of Single-Crystal α-Bi2O3. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 4967-4978.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0953-8984/9/23/020

[5]   Liu, X.Y., Liu, J., Zheng, H.W., Liu, X.S., Li, G. and Zhang, W.F. (2012) Separation Mechanism of Photogenerated Charges for p-Type α-Bi2O3 Nanoparticles with Surface States. Applied Surface Science, 258, 4240-4245.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2011.12.059

[6]   Gondal, M., Saleh, T. and Drmosh, Q. (2012) Optical Properties of Bismuth Oxide Nanoparticles Synthesized by Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquids. Science of Advanced Materials, 4, 507-510.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/sam.2012.1310

[7]   Lin, G., Tan, D.Z., Luo, F.F., Chen, D.P., Zhao, Q.Z., Qiu, J.R. and Xu, Z.Z. (2010) Fabrication and Photocatalytic Property of α-Bi2O3 Nanoparticles by Femtosecond Laser Ablation in Liquid. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 507, L43-L46.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2010.08.014

[8]   Salazar, A., Camacho, M., Morales, R., Sanchez, V. and Urena, F. (2005) Structure Evolution of Bi2O3 Prepared by Thermal Oxidation of Bismuth Nano-Particles. Superficies y Vacio, 18, 4-8.

[9]   Bartonickova, E., Cihlar, J. and Castkova, K. (2007) Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Bismuth Oxide. Processing and Application of Ceramics, 1, 29-33.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2298/PAC0702029B

[10]   Dong, W. and Zhu, C. (2003) Optical Properties of Surface-Modified Bi2O3 Nanoparticles. Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, 64, 265-271.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3697(02)00291-3

[11]   Li, W. (2006) Facile Synthesis of Monodisperse Bi2O3 Nanoparticles. Materials Chemistry and Physics, 99, 174-180.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2005.11.007

[12]   Ascencio, A.F.M. and Becerra, R.H. (2015) New Synthesis of Bismuth Oxide Nanoparticles Bi2O3 Assisted by Tannic Acid. Applied Physics A, 119, 909-915.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00339-015-9039-x

[13]   Abdelwahed, W., Degobert, G., Stainmesse, S. and Fessi, H. (2006) Freeze-Drying of Nanoparticles: Formulation, Process and Storage Considerations. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 58, 1688-1713.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addr.2006.09.017

[14]   Galicia, R., Herrera, R., Rius, J., Zorrilla, C. and Gómez, A. (2013) A Program for Phase Identification Using Diffractograms Obtained from TEM Structure Images. Revista Mexicana de Física, 59, 102-106.

[15]   Gómez-Rodríguez, A., Beltrán-del-Río, L.M. and Herrera-Becerra, R. (2010) SimulaTEM: Multislice Simulations for General Objects. Ultramicroscopy, 110, 95-104.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultramic.2009.09.010

[16]   Cowley, J.M. and Moodie, A.F. (1957) The Scattering of Electrons by Atoms and Crystals. I. A New Theoretical Approach. Acta Crystallographica, 10, 609-619.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S0365110X57002194

[17]   Risold, D., Hallstedt, B., Gauckler, L., Lukas, H. and Fries, S. (1995) The Bismuth-Oxygen System. Journal of Phase Equilibria, 16, 223-234.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02667306

[18]   Drache, M., Roussel, P. and Wignacourt, J. (2007) Structures and Oxide Mobility in Bi-Ln-O Materials: Heritage of Bi2O3. Chemical Reviews, 107, 80-96.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cr050977s

[19]   Kumada, N., Kinomura, N., Woodward, P. and Sleight, A.W. (1995) Crystal Structure of Bi2O4 with β-Sb2O4-Type Structure. Journal of Solid State Chemistry, 116, 281-285.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jssc.1995.1214

[20]   Xia, J.-Y., Tang, M., Chen, C., Jin, S. and Chen, Y. (2012) Preparation of α-Bi2O3 from Bismuth Powders through Low-Temperature Oxidation. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 22, 2289-2294.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1003-6326(11)61462-3

[21]   Blower, S. and Greaves, C. (1988) The Structure of β-Bi2O3 from Powder Neutron Diffraction Data. Acta Crystallographica Section C: Crystal Structure Communications, 44, 587-589.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S0108270187011661

[22]   Radaev, S.F., Simonov, V.I. and Kargin, Y.F. (1992) Structural Features of γ-Phase Bi2O3 and Its Place in the Sillenite Family. Acta Crystallographica Section B, 48, 604-609.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S0108768192003847

[23]   Battlet, P., Catlow, C., Drennans, J. and Murray, A. (1983) The Structural Properties of the Oxygen Conducting δ Phase of Bi2O3. Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics, 16, L561-L566.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0022-3719/16/17/003

[24]   Atou, T., Faqir, H., Kikuchi, M., Chiba, H. and Syono, Y. (1998) A New High-Pressure Phase of Bismuth Oxide. Materials Research Bulletin, 33, 289-292.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0025-5408(97)00216-X

[25]   Brugger, R.M., Bennion, R.B. and Worlton, T.G. (1967) The Crystal Structure of Bismuth-II at 26 Kbar. Physics Letters A, 24, 714-717.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0375-9601(67)90230-7

[26]   Guenther, G., Kruis, F.E. and Guillon, O. (2014) Size-Dependent Phase Transformations in Bismuth Oxide Nanoparticles. I. Synthesis and Evaporation. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 118, 27010-27019.

[27]   Guenther, G., Theissmann, R. and Guillon, O. (2014) Size-Dependent Phase Transformations in Bismuth Oxide Nanoparticles. II. Melting and Stability Diagram. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 118, 27020-27027.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp509841s

[28]   Steele, J.A. and Lewis, R.A. (2014) In Situ Micro-Raman Studies of Laser-Induced Bismuth Oxidation Reveals Metastability of Beta-Bi2O3 Microislands. Optical Materials Express, 4, 2133-2144.

[29]   Deng, Y.H., Cai, Y., Sun, Z.K. and Zhao, D.Y. (2011) Magnetically Responsive Ordered Mesoporous Materials: A Burgeoning Family of Functional Composite Nanomaterials. Chemical Physics Letters, 510, 1-13.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cplett.2011.04.093

 
 
Top