JBM  Vol.3 No.11 , November 2015
Effective Lighting Design Standards Impacting Patient Care: A Systems Approach
ABSTRACT
Background: Most healthcare settings are lit by a combination of daylight entering through windows, skylights and electric-light sources. It is important to understand how these two types of light sources differ to understand their relative impacts on human health and performance. It is found important to have a starting point in healing architecture and create an environment with knowledge of users sensory and functionally needs and looks at how hospital wards can support patients’ experience or maybe even have a positive influence on the recovery process. Methods: A systematic review of the literature to evaluate the impact of light on the quality of healthcare services was conducted. Several databases were systematically searched and evaluated. Results: Majority of the studies showed that distributions of light within a space in hospitals could substantially influence the health as well as perception of people within it. The study showed that in a multi-function and diverse habitant environment such as hospital treatment rooms, lighting system design plays a major role for comfort of the patients, the critical visual requirements for hospital staff, the comfort and visual need of the visitors. In addition to these goals, energy cost savings through the careful design of lighting schemes used in such applications. Conclusions: There is consistent evidence that shows the technical, architectural and energy aspects of providing optimal lighting conditions in different areas of a healthcare facility are important for patient, staff and energy conservation and cost within the hospitals.

Cite this paper
Mehrotra, S. , Basukala, S. and Devarakonda, S. (2015) Effective Lighting Design Standards Impacting Patient Care: A Systems Approach. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 3, 54-61. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2015.311006.
References
[1]   Ulrich, R.S., Zimring, C., Joseph, A., Quan, X. and Choudhary, R. (2004) The Role of the Physical Environment in the Hospital of the 21st Century: A Once-in-a-Lifetime Opportunity. The Center for Health Design, Concord.

[2]   Boyce, P., Hunter, C. and Howlett, O. (2003) The Benefits of Daylight through Windows. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy.

[3]   Rizzo, P., Rea, M.S. and White, R. (2010) In Newborn and Infant Nursing Reviews.

[4]   Hilary, D., et al. (2006) Colour and Lighting in Hospital Design. Optic and Laser Technology, 38, 343-365.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2005.06.040

[5]   Ackerman, B., Sherwonit, E. and Fisk, W. (1989) Reduced Incidental Light Exposure: Effect on the Development of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Low Birth Weight Infants. Pediatrics, 83, 958-962.

[6]   Edwards, L. and Torcellini, P. (2002) A Literature Review of the Effects of Natural Light on Building Occupants (Technical Report). National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2172/15000841

[7]   Alimoglu, M.K. and Donmez, L. (2005) Daylight Exposure and the Other Predictors of Burnout among Nurses in a University Hospital. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 42, 549-555.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2004.09.001

[8]   Baehr, E., Fogg, L.F. and Eastman, C.I. (1999) Intermittent Bright Light and Exercise to Entrain Human Circadian Rhythms to Night Work. American Journal of Physiology, 277, 1598-1604.

[9]   Beauchemin, K.M. and Hays, P. (1996) Sunny Hospital Rooms Expedite Recovery from Severe and Refractory Depressions. Journal of Affective Disorders, 40, 49-51.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0165-0327(96)00040-7

[10]   Beauchemin, K.M. and Hays, P. (1998) Dying in the Dark: Sunshine, Gender and Outcomes in Myocardial Infarction. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 91, 352-354.

[11]   Begemann, S.H.A., van den Beld, G.J. and Tenner, A.D. (1997) Daylight, Artificial Light and People in an Office Environment: Overview of Visual and Biological Responses. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 20, 231-239.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-8141(96)00053-4

[12]   Benedetti, F., Colombo, C., Barbini, B., Campori, E. and Smeraldi, E. (2001) Morning Sunlight Reduces Length of Hospitalization in Bipolar Depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 62, 221-223.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0165-0327(00)00149-X

[13]   Blackburn, S. and Patteson, D. (1991) Effects of Cycled Light on Activity State and Cardiorespiratory Function in Preterm Infants. Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing, 4, 47-54.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005237-199103000-00009

[14]   Dumbleton, T., Clift, L., Bayer, S.H., Elton, E., Howarth, P.A. and Maguire, M. (2010) Buyers’ Guide: Operating Theatre Lighting. NHS Purchasing and Supply Agency, Chester and Reading.

[15]   Beauchemin, K.M. and Hays, P. (1998) Dying in the Dark: Sunshine, Gender and Outcomes in Myocardial Infarction. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 91, 352-354.

[16]   Veitch, J.A. (1993) Conclusion: Is Full Spectrum Light the Quality Choice? (No. 659). Institute for Research in Construction, Ottawa.

[17]   Lewy, A.J., Bauer, V.K., Cutler, N.L., Sack, R.L., Ahmed, S., Thomas, K.H., et al. (1998) Morning vs. Evening Light Treatment of Patients with Winter Depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 890-896.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.55.10.890

[18]   Federman, E.J., Drebing, C.E., Boisvert, C. and Penk, W. (2000) Relationship between Climate and Psychiatric Inpatient Length of Stay in Veterans Health Administration Hospitals. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 1669-1673.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.157.10.1669

[19]   LaGarce, M. (2002) Control of Environmental Lighting and Its Effects on Behaviors of the Alzheimer’s Type. Journal of Interior Design, 28, 15-25.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-1668.2002.tb00375.x

[20]   Sloane, P.D., Mitchell, C.M., Preisser, J., Phillips, C., Commander, C. and Burker, E. (1998) Environmental Correlates of Resident Agitation in Alzheimer’s Disease Special Care Units. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 46, 862-869.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.1998.tb02720.x

[21]   Lovell, B.B., Ancoli-Israel, S. and Gevirtz, R. (1995) Effect of Bright Light Treatment on Agitated Behavior in Institutionalized Elderly Subjects. Psychiatry Research, 57, 7-12.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0165-1781(95)02550-G

[22]   Walch, J.M., Rabin, B.S., Day, R., Williams, J.N., Choi, K. and Kang, J.D. (2005) The Effect of Sunlight on Postoperative Analgesic Medication Usage: A Prospective Study of Spinal Surgery Patients. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67, 156-163.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.psy.0000149258.42508.70

[23]   Heerwagen, J. and Heerwagen, D. (1986) Lighting and Psychological Comfort. Lighting Design and Application, 6, 47-51.

[24]   Leather, P., Pyrgas, M., Beale, D. and Lawrence, C. (1998) Windows in the Workplace: Sunlight, View, and Occupational Stress. Environment & Behavior, 30, 739-762.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001391659803000601

[25]   Alimoglu, M.K. and Donmez, L. (2005) Daylight Exposure and the Other Predictors of Burnout among Nurses in a University Hospital. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 42, 549-555.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2004.09.001

[26]   Miller, C.L., White, R., Whitman, T.L., O’Callaghan, M.F. and Maxwell, S.E. (1995) The Effects of Cycled versus Noncycled Lighting on Growth and Development in Preterm Infants. Infant Behavior and Development, 18, 87-95.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0163-6383(95)90010-1

[27]   Mroczek, J., Mikitarian, G., Vieira, E.K. and Rotarius, T. (2005) Hospital Design and Staff Perceptions: An Exploratory Analysis. Health Care Manager, 24, 233-244.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00126450-200507000-00008

[28]   Oren, D.A., Wisner, K.L., Spinelli, M. and Epperson, N. (2002) An Open Trial of Morning Light Therapy for Treatment of Antepartum Depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 666-669.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.159.4.666

[29]   Reynolds, J.D., Hardy, R.J., Kennedy, K.A. and Spencer, R. (1998) Lack of Efficacy of Light Reduction in Preventing Retinopathy of Prematurity. New England Journal of Medicine, 338, 1572-1576.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199805283382202

 
 
Top