JBM  Vol.3 No.11 , November 2015
Is Caries in the Early Mixed Dentition Associated with Caries Development during Orthodontic Treatment?
Abstract: Objective: To investigate if caries in the pre-treatment early mixed dentition is associated with caries development in the permanent dentition during orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods: We included 41 consecutive patients (29 girls, 12 boys) with a pre-treatment documentation in the mixed (mean age 9.4 years) and a post treatment documentation in the permanent dentition (age 14.9 years) (two-phased treatment time 4.5 (±1.6) years). The DMFT/S indices were calculated. High-risk and low-risk groups were defined according to dmfs + DMFS score before treatment. Results: Initial dmft/s + DMFT/S (SD) was 5.15 (3.60) and 8.32 (6.64); final DMFT/S was 2.76 (2.84) and 3.01 (3.20). The missing (because of decay) second deciduous molars were most powerfully associated with caries increment during treatment, showing significant correlations to second premolars (r = 0.47, p = 0.003), while fillings on second deciduous molars seem to influence the prevalence of fillings on permanent molars (r = 0.44, p = 0.001). The increment at surface level was 2.01 (2.61) in the whole sample and 2.60 (3.81) in the high-risk group (4 boys, 6 girls). Compared to the low-risk group (10 girls), post-treatment caries experience was significantly higher in the high-risk group (p = 0.029). Boys were more at risk than girls (p = 0.005). Conclusions: Children with elevated caries experience in the early mixed dentition are exposed to higher caries risk during orthodontic treatment. Thus, in prevision of treatment, caries should already be assessed in the mixed dentition, so that an extended prophylaxis program can be initiated.
Cite this paper: Soumas, V. , Kiliaridis, S. and Staudt, C. (2015) Is Caries in the Early Mixed Dentition Associated with Caries Development during Orthodontic Treatment?. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 3, 25-32. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2015.311003.

[1]   Marthaler, T.M. (2004) Changes in Dental Caries 1953-2003. Caries Research, 38, 173-181.

[2]   The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) (2002) Policy Statement on the Use of a Caries-Risk Assessment Tool (CAT). Council on Clinical Affairs.

[3]   Gorelick, L., Geiger, A.M. and Gwinnet, A.J. (1982) Incidence of White Spot Formation after Bonding and Banding. American Journal of Orthodontics, 81, 93-98.

[4]   Artun, J. and Brobakken, B.O. (1986) Prevalence of Carious White Spots after Orthodontic Treatment with Multibonded Appliances. European Journal of Orthodontics, 8, 229-234.

[5]   Ogaard, B. (1989) Prevalence of White Spot Lesions in 19-Year-Olds: A Study on Untreated and Orthodontically Treated Persons 5 Years after Treatment. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 96, 423- 427.

[6]   O’Reilly, M.M. and Featherstone, J.D.B. (1987) Demineralization and Remineralization around Orthodontic Appliances: An in Vivo Study. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 92, 33-40.

[7]   Powell, L.V. (1998) Caries Prediction: A Review of the Literature. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 26, 361-371.

[8]   Li, Y. and Wang, W. (2002) Predicting Caries in Permanent Teeth from Caries in Primary Teeth: An Eight-Year Cohort Study. Journal of Dental Research, 81, 561-566.

[9]   Mejàre, I. and Stenlund, H. (2000) Caries Rates for the Mesial Surface of the First Permanent Molar and the Distal Surface of the Second Primary Molar from 6 to 12 Years of Age in Sweden. Caries Research, 34, 454-461.

[10]   Al Mulla, A.H., Al Kharsa, S., Kjellberg, H., et al. (2009) Caries Risk Profiles in Orthodontic Patients at Follow-Up Using Cariogram. Angle Orthodontics, 79, 323-330.

[11]   Kidd, E.A. and Pitts, N.B. (1990) A Reappraisal of the Value of the Bitewing Radiograph in the Diagnosis of Posterior Approximal Caries. British Dental Journal, 169, 195-200.

[12]   Skeie, M.S., Raadal, M., Strand, G.V., et al. (2006) The Relationship between Caries in the Primary Dentition at 5 Years of Age and Permanent Dentition at 10 Years of Age—A Longitudinal Study. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 16, 152-160.

[13]   Steiner, M., Menghini, G., Marthaler, T.M., et al. (2010) Changes in Dental Caries in Zurich School-Children over a Period of 45 Years. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed, 120, 1084-1104.

[14]   Skeie, M.S., Raadal, M., Strand, G.V., et al. (2004) Caries in the Primary Teeth at 5 and 10 Years of Age: A Longitudinal Study. European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 4, 194-202.

[15]   Hansel Petersson, G., Twetman, S. and Bratthall, D. (2002) Evaluation of a Computer Program for Caries Risk Assessment in Schoolchildren. Caries Research, 36, 327-340.