PSYCH  Vol.6 No.14 , November 2015
Study on Influence of Internal Working Models and Gender Differences on Addiction of Social Network Sites in Japanese University Students
ABSTRACT
In recent decades, social network sites (SNSs) have become more popular and SNSs addiction has become a serious social problem. However, few studies have examined the effect of a person’s internal working model (IWM) on addiction, which determine how attachment processes operate throughout the life course. This study aims at investigating the influence of IWMs and the psychological state, particularly loneliness and interpersonal trust, and of gender differences on addiction of SNSs in Japanese university students. Participants were 284 undergraduates in Japan (130 males, 154 females) who were evaluated with an original questionnaire about SNSs addiction, the UCLA Loneliness Scale, Interpersonal Trust Scale, and Internal Working Model Scale. We conducted multiple regression analyses by setting the entry method, one of which was forced entry, to examine the relationship between the dependent variable (SNSs addiction) and the independent variables (other factors) in each gender. The results show that SNSs addiction is influenced by an ambivalent attachment (males, β = .19; females β = .36) and utilization time (males, β = .32; females β = .32) in both genders. To compare gender differences, we examined the structural equation modeling. The results show that only the influence of an ambivalent attachment is significantly different between males and females (z = 5.04, p < .01), suggesting that such an attachment predicts SNSs addiction. Because females tend to use SNSs as interaction tools, those with a high ambivalent may become preoccupied with peer group membership. To prevent SNSs addiction, it is important that children form stable attachment relationships with parents/ caregivers when young. Regarding clinical implications, if counseling or psychotherapy is employed for people with SNSs addiction, it is important to assess the attachment , and that therapy work toward changing an ambivalent to a stable one.

Cite this paper
Fujimori, A. , Yamazaki, T. , Sato, M. , Hayashi, H. , Fujiwara, Y. and Matsusaka, T. (2015) Study on Influence of Internal Working Models and Gender Differences on Addiction of Social Network Sites in Japanese University Students. Psychology, 6, 1832-1840. doi: 10.4236/psych.2015.614179.
References
[1]   Ainsworth, M., & Bell, S. (1970). Attachment, Exploration, and Separation: Illustrated by the Behavior of One-Year-Olds in a Strange Situation. Child Development, 41, 49-67.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1127388

[2]   Apaolaza, V., Hartmann, P., Medina, E., Barrutia, J. M., & Echebarria, C. (2013). The Relationship between Socializing on the Spanish Online Networking Site Tuenti and Teenagers’ Subjective Wellbeing: The Roles of Self-Esteem and Loneliness. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 1282-1289.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.01.002

[3]   Baek, Y., Bae, Y., & Jang, H. (2013). Social and Parasocial Relationships on Social Network Sites and Their Differential Relationships with Users’ Psychological Well-Being. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 16, 512-517.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2012.0510

[4]   Baker, L., & Oswald, D. (2010). Shyness and Online Social Networking Services. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 27, 873-889.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407510375261

[5]   Barak, A., & Gluck-Ofri, O. (2007). Degree and Reciprocity of Self-Disclosure in Online Forums. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 10, 407-417.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2006.9938

[6]   Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment: Attachment and Loss Volume One. New York: Basic Books.

[7]   Boyd, D., & Ellison, N. (2008). Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13, 210-230.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00393.x

[8]   Corey, J., Blomfield. N., & Bonnie, B. (2014). Social Networking Site Use: Linked to Adolescents’ Social Self-Concept, Self-Esteem, and Depressed Mood. Australian Journal of Psychology, 66, 56-64.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajpy.12034

[9]   Correa, T., Hinsley, A. W., & de Zuniga, H. G. (2010). Who Interacts on the Web?: The Intersection of Users’ Personality and Social Media Use. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 247-253.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2009.09.003

[10]   Droun, M., & Landgraff, C. (2012). Texting, Sexting, and Attachment in College Students’ Romantic Relationship. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 444-449.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2011.10.015

[11]   Ellison, N., Steinfield. C., & Lampe, C. (2007). The Benefits of Facebook “Friends”: Social Capital and College Students’ Use of Online Social Network Sites. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12, 1143-1168.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00367.x

[12]   Griffiths, M. (1995). Technological Addictions. Clinical psychological forum, 71, 14-19.

[13]   Hazan, C., & Shaver, P. (1987). Romantic Love Conceptualized as an Attachment Process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 511-524.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.52.3.511

[14]   Horii, T., & Tsuchiya, E. (1995). A Study of the Relationship between the Earliest Recollection and Interpersonal Trust. The Japanese Journal of Personality, 3, 27-36.

[15]   Jelicic, H., Bobek, D.L., Phelps, E., Lerner, R. M., & Lerner, J. V. (2007). Using Positive Youth Development to Predict Contribution and Risk Behaviors in Early Adolescence: Findings from the First Two Waves of the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 31, 263-273.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0165025407076439

[16]   Kalpidou, M., Costin, D., & Morris, J. (2011). The Relationship Between Facebook and the Well-Being of Undergraduate College Students. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 14, 183-189.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2010.0061

[17]   Kim, J., LaRose, R., & Peng, W. (2009). Loneliness as the Cause and the Effect of Problematic Internet Use: The Relationship between Internet Use and Psychological Well-Being. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 12, 541-455.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2008.0327

[18]   Kim, J. H., Kim, M. S., & Nam, Y. (2010). An Analysis of Self-Construals, Motivations, Facebook Use, and User Satisfaction. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 26, 1077-1099.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10447318.2010.516726

[19]   Ko, C.-H., Yen, J.-Y., Chen, C.-C., Chen, S.-H., Wu, K., Yen, C.-F. (2006). Tridimensional Personality of Adolescents with Internet Addiction and Substance Use Experience. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 51, 887-894.

[20]   Kraut, R., Patterson, M., Lundmark, V., Kiesler, S., Mukopadhyay, T., & Scherlis, W. (1998). Internet Paradox. A Social Technology that Reduces Social Involvement and Psychological Well-Being? American Psychological Association, 53, 1017-1031.

[21]   Kuss, D. J., & Griffiths, M. D. (2012). Internet Gaming Addiction: A Systematic Review of Empirical Research. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 10, 278-296.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11469-011-9318-5

[22]   Larry, D. (2012). Idisorder: Understanding Our Obsession With Technology and Overcoming Its Hold on Us. United Kingdom: Griffin Press.

[23]   Morahan-Martin J., & Schumacher, P. (2000). Incidence and Correlates of Pathological Internet Use among College Students. Computers in Human Behavior, 16, 13-29.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0747-5632(99)00049-7

[24]   Moroi, K. (1992). Dimensions of the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale. Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, 42, 23-51.

[25]   Mothersead, P., Kivlighan, D., & Wynkoop, T. (1998). Attachment, Family Dysfunction, Parental Alcoholism, and Interpersonal Distress in Late Adolescence: A structural model. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 45, 196-203.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.45.2.196

[26]   Rotter, J. (1967). A New Scale for the Measurement of Interpersonal Trust. Journal of Personality, 35, 651-665.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1967.tb01454.x

[27]   Russell, D. (1982). The Measurement of Loneliness. In L. Peplau, & D. Perlman (Eds.), Loneliness: A Sourcebook of Current Theory, Research and Therapy (pp.81-104). United States: Wiley.

[28]   Ryan, T., & Xenos, S. (2011). Who Uses Facebook? An Investigation into the Relationship between the Big Five, Shyness, Narcissism, Loneliness, and Facebook Usage. Computers in Human Behavior, 27, 1658-1664.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2011.02.004

[29]   Toda, K. (1988). Basic Interpersonal Relationships and Attachment Style in the Late Adolescence-Examination from Working Models. 52nd Conference of the Japanese Psychological Association, Hiroshima, 8 October 1988, 27.

[30]   Wang, J., Jackson, L., Gaskin, J., & Wang, H. (2014). The Effects of Social Networking Site (SNS) Use on College Students’ Friendship and Well-Being. Computers in Human Behavior, 37, 229-236.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.04.051

[31]   Weisskirch, S., & Delevi, R. (2009). “Sexting” and Adult Romantic Attachment. Computers in Human Behavior, 27, 1697-1701.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2011.02.008

[32]   Wise, K., Alhabash, S., & Park, H. (2010). Emotional Responses during Social Information Seeking on Facebook. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 13, 555-562.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2009.0365

[33]   Young, K. (1996). Psychology of Computer Use: Xl. Addictive Use of the Internet: A Case That Breaks the Stereotype. Psychological Reports, 79, 899-902.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1996.79.3.899

[34]   Zhou, S. X. (2010). Gratifications, Loneliness, Leisure Boredom and Self-Esteem as Predictors of SNS-Game Addiction and Usage Pattern among Chinese College Students. M.S. Thesis, Hong Kong: Chinese University of Hong Kong.

 
 
Top