Theory of a Mach Effect Thruster II

Affiliation(s)

^{1}
Department of Physics, California State University Fullerton, Fullerton, CA, USA.

^{2}
Department of Aerospace Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA.

ABSTRACT

According to Einstein, General Relativity contains the essence of Mach’s ideas. Mach’s principle can be summarized by stating that the inertia of a body is determined by the rest of the mass-energy content of the universe. Inertia here arises from mass-energy there. The latter, was a statement made by John Wheeler in his 1995 book, Gravitation and Inertia, coauthored by Ciufolini. Einstein believed that to be fully Machian, gravity would need a radiative component, an action-at-a-distance character, so that gravitational influences on a body from far away could be felt immediately. In 1960’s, Hoyle and Narlikar (HN) developed such a theory which was a gravitational version of the Absorber theory derived by Wheeler-Feynman for classical electrodynamics and later expanded upon by Davies and Narlikar for quantum electrodynamics. The HN-field equation has the same type of mass fluctuation terms as in the Woodward Mach effect thruster theory. The force equation, used to predict the thrust in our device, can be derived from the mass fluctuation. We outline a new method for deriving the force equation. We present new experimental tests of the thruster to show that the thrust seen in our device is not due to either heating or Dean Drive effects. Successful replications have been performed by groups in Austria and Canada, but their work is still pending in the peer review literature.

According to Einstein, General Relativity contains the essence of Mach’s ideas. Mach’s principle can be summarized by stating that the inertia of a body is determined by the rest of the mass-energy content of the universe. Inertia here arises from mass-energy there. The latter, was a statement made by John Wheeler in his 1995 book, Gravitation and Inertia, coauthored by Ciufolini. Einstein believed that to be fully Machian, gravity would need a radiative component, an action-at-a-distance character, so that gravitational influences on a body from far away could be felt immediately. In 1960’s, Hoyle and Narlikar (HN) developed such a theory which was a gravitational version of the Absorber theory derived by Wheeler-Feynman for classical electrodynamics and later expanded upon by Davies and Narlikar for quantum electrodynamics. The HN-field equation has the same type of mass fluctuation terms as in the Woodward Mach effect thruster theory. The force equation, used to predict the thrust in our device, can be derived from the mass fluctuation. We outline a new method for deriving the force equation. We present new experimental tests of the thruster to show that the thrust seen in our device is not due to either heating or Dean Drive effects. Successful replications have been performed by groups in Austria and Canada, but their work is still pending in the peer review literature.

KEYWORDS

Mach Effect Drive, Transient Mass Fluctuations, Mach’s Principle, Action at a Distance, Advanced Waves, Event Horizon

Mach Effect Drive, Transient Mass Fluctuations, Mach’s Principle, Action at a Distance, Advanced Waves, Event Horizon

Cite this paper

Fearn, H. , Rossum, N. , Wanser, K. and Woodward, J. (2015) Theory of a Mach Effect Thruster II.*Journal of Modern Physics*, **6**, 1868-1880. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2015.613192.

Fearn, H. , Rossum, N. , Wanser, K. and Woodward, J. (2015) Theory of a Mach Effect Thruster II.

References

[1] Einstein A. (1912) Is There a Gravitational Effect which Is Analogous to Electrodynamic Induction? Vierteljahrsschrift fur gerichtliche Medizin und offentliches Sanitatswesen, 44, 37-40. Translated in English and Reprinted in the Collected Papers of Albert Einstein (CPAE), 4, 126.

[2] Lynden-Bell, D., Bicak, J. and Katz, J. (1999) On Accelerated Inertial Frames in Gravity and Electromagnetism.

http://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/9812033

[3] Einstein, A. (1955) The Meaning of Relativity. Princeton, New York.

[4] Fearn, H., Zachar, A., Wanser, K. and Woodward, J. (2015) Theory of a Mach Effect Thruster I. Journal of Modern Physics, 6, 1510-1525.

http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2015.611155

[5] Tetrode, H. (1922) über den Wirkungszusammenhang der Welt. Eine Erweiterung der klassischen Dynamik. Zeitschrift für Physik, 10, 317-328.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01332574

[6] Fokker, A.D. (1928) Ein invarianter Variationssatz für die Bewegung mehrerer elektrischer Massenteilchen. Zeitschrift für Physik, 58, 386-393.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01340389

[7] Dirac, P.A.M. (1938) Classical Theory of Radiating Electrons. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A, 167, 148.

[8] Wheeler, J.A. and Feynman, R.P. (1945) Interaction with the Absorber as a Mechanism of Radiation. Reviews of Modern Physics, 17, 157.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/RevModPhys.17.157

[9] Cramer, J.G. (1986) The Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. Reviews of Modern Physics, 58, 647.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/RevModPhys.58.647

[10] Cramer, J.G. (2015) The Quantum Handshake, Entanglement, Nonlocality and Transactions. Springer Verlag.

[11] Kastner, R.E. (2013) The Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

[12] Mehra, J. (1994) The Beat of a Different Drum. The life and science of Richard Feynman. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 96.

[13] Hoyle, F. and Narlikar, J.V. (1964) A New Theory of Gravitation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A, 282, 191.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1964.0227

[14] Hoyle, F. and Narlikar, J.V. (1964) On the Gravitational Influence of Direct Particle Fields. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A, 282, 184-190.

[15] Hoyle, F. and Narlikar, J.V. (1974) Action at a Distance in Physics and Cosmology. W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco.

[16] Hawking, S.W. (1965) On the Hoyl-Narlikar Theory of Gravitation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A, 286 313.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1965.0146

[17] Fearn, H. (2015) Mach’s Principle, Action at a Distance and Cosmology. Journal of Modern Physics, 6, 260-272.

http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2015.63031. http://arxiv.org/abs/1412.5426

[18] Fearn, H., Zachar, A., Woodward, J.F. and Wanser, K. (2014) Theory of a Mach Effect Thruster. Proceedings of the 50th AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference, Nuclear and Future Flight Session, Cleveland, 28-30th July 2014.

[19] Misner, C.W., Thorne K.S. and Wheeler, J.A. (1973) Gravitation. W. H. Freeman and Co., New York, See Section 18.1, pp. 445-459, 470 for Definition of Energy-Stress Tensor in Terms of Density, Pressure and Proper-Velocity.

[20] Fearn, H., Woodward, J.F. and van Rossum, N. (2015) New Theoretical Results for the Mach Effect Thruster. 51st AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference, Orlando, 26-29 July 2015.

http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/6.2015-4082

[21] Woodward, J.F. (2012) Making Starships and Stargates. Springer Press, Berlin, 70, 73, 82-86, 134-142, 175-176.

[22] Fearn, H. and Woodward, J.F. (2012) Recent Investigation of Mach Effect Thrusters? Proceedings of the 48th AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference, Atlanta, 29th July-1st August 2012.

[23] Fearn, H. and Woodward, J.F. (2013) Experimental Null Test of a Mach Effect Thruster. Journal of Space Exploration, 2, 98-105.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1301.6178

[24] Fearn, H. and Wanser, K. (2014) Experimental Tests of the Mach Effect Thruster. Journal of Space Exploration, 3, 197-205.

[25] Wanser, K.H. (2014) Center of Mass Acceleration of an Isolates System. Journal of Space Exploration, 2, 121-130.

[26] Mason, W.P. (1943) Quartz Crystal Applicayions. Bell System Technical Journal, 22, 178-223.

[27] Buldrini, N., Tajmar, M., Marigold, K. and Seifert, B. (2006) Experimental Study of the Machine Mass Fluctuation Effect Using a μN Thrust balance. AIP Conference Proceedings, Space Technology and Applications Forum STAIFF, Albuquerque, 1313-1320. Chapter 11, Frontiers of Propulsion Science, Edited by Millis, M.G. and Davis, E.W., Vol. 227, Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, 2009.

[28] Baldrini, N. (2015) Private Communication.

[1] Einstein A. (1912) Is There a Gravitational Effect which Is Analogous to Electrodynamic Induction? Vierteljahrsschrift fur gerichtliche Medizin und offentliches Sanitatswesen, 44, 37-40. Translated in English and Reprinted in the Collected Papers of Albert Einstein (CPAE), 4, 126.

[2] Lynden-Bell, D., Bicak, J. and Katz, J. (1999) On Accelerated Inertial Frames in Gravity and Electromagnetism.

http://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/9812033

[3] Einstein, A. (1955) The Meaning of Relativity. Princeton, New York.

[4] Fearn, H., Zachar, A., Wanser, K. and Woodward, J. (2015) Theory of a Mach Effect Thruster I. Journal of Modern Physics, 6, 1510-1525.

http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2015.611155

[5] Tetrode, H. (1922) über den Wirkungszusammenhang der Welt. Eine Erweiterung der klassischen Dynamik. Zeitschrift für Physik, 10, 317-328.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01332574

[6] Fokker, A.D. (1928) Ein invarianter Variationssatz für die Bewegung mehrerer elektrischer Massenteilchen. Zeitschrift für Physik, 58, 386-393.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01340389

[7] Dirac, P.A.M. (1938) Classical Theory of Radiating Electrons. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A, 167, 148.

[8] Wheeler, J.A. and Feynman, R.P. (1945) Interaction with the Absorber as a Mechanism of Radiation. Reviews of Modern Physics, 17, 157.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/RevModPhys.17.157

[9] Cramer, J.G. (1986) The Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. Reviews of Modern Physics, 58, 647.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/RevModPhys.58.647

[10] Cramer, J.G. (2015) The Quantum Handshake, Entanglement, Nonlocality and Transactions. Springer Verlag.

[11] Kastner, R.E. (2013) The Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

[12] Mehra, J. (1994) The Beat of a Different Drum. The life and science of Richard Feynman. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 96.

[13] Hoyle, F. and Narlikar, J.V. (1964) A New Theory of Gravitation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A, 282, 191.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1964.0227

[14] Hoyle, F. and Narlikar, J.V. (1964) On the Gravitational Influence of Direct Particle Fields. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A, 282, 184-190.

[15] Hoyle, F. and Narlikar, J.V. (1974) Action at a Distance in Physics and Cosmology. W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco.

[16] Hawking, S.W. (1965) On the Hoyl-Narlikar Theory of Gravitation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A, 286 313.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1965.0146

[17] Fearn, H. (2015) Mach’s Principle, Action at a Distance and Cosmology. Journal of Modern Physics, 6, 260-272.

http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2015.63031. http://arxiv.org/abs/1412.5426

[18] Fearn, H., Zachar, A., Woodward, J.F. and Wanser, K. (2014) Theory of a Mach Effect Thruster. Proceedings of the 50th AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference, Nuclear and Future Flight Session, Cleveland, 28-30th July 2014.

[19] Misner, C.W., Thorne K.S. and Wheeler, J.A. (1973) Gravitation. W. H. Freeman and Co., New York, See Section 18.1, pp. 445-459, 470 for Definition of Energy-Stress Tensor in Terms of Density, Pressure and Proper-Velocity.

[20] Fearn, H., Woodward, J.F. and van Rossum, N. (2015) New Theoretical Results for the Mach Effect Thruster. 51st AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference, Orlando, 26-29 July 2015.

http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/6.2015-4082

[21] Woodward, J.F. (2012) Making Starships and Stargates. Springer Press, Berlin, 70, 73, 82-86, 134-142, 175-176.

[22] Fearn, H. and Woodward, J.F. (2012) Recent Investigation of Mach Effect Thrusters? Proceedings of the 48th AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference, Atlanta, 29th July-1st August 2012.

[23] Fearn, H. and Woodward, J.F. (2013) Experimental Null Test of a Mach Effect Thruster. Journal of Space Exploration, 2, 98-105.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1301.6178

[24] Fearn, H. and Wanser, K. (2014) Experimental Tests of the Mach Effect Thruster. Journal of Space Exploration, 3, 197-205.

[25] Wanser, K.H. (2014) Center of Mass Acceleration of an Isolates System. Journal of Space Exploration, 2, 121-130.

[26] Mason, W.P. (1943) Quartz Crystal Applicayions. Bell System Technical Journal, 22, 178-223.

[27] Buldrini, N., Tajmar, M., Marigold, K. and Seifert, B. (2006) Experimental Study of the Machine Mass Fluctuation Effect Using a μN Thrust balance. AIP Conference Proceedings, Space Technology and Applications Forum STAIFF, Albuquerque, 1313-1320. Chapter 11, Frontiers of Propulsion Science, Edited by Millis, M.G. and Davis, E.W., Vol. 227, Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, 2009.

[28] Baldrini, N. (2015) Private Communication.