The Relativity of Cosmic Time: The Universe Is a Black Hole

ABSTRACT

Up to now, cosmology metrics have been based on Einstein relativity, established in 1905. Hubble has discovered the correlation between redshift and distance. Cosmology interprets the redshift as an expansion effect a(*t*) through the ΛCDM model. We have proposed a new theory to explain Hubble law. The theory has been validated against observation data. It proposes a new approach of time which introduces the cosmic time *t*_{c}. Cosmic time is an absolute reference to universe. It is zero at the edge with *t*_{c} = 0, *t*_{c} = *T* at the observer position and *t*_{c} = *s* for any source between the edge and the observer, with *T* > *s* > 0. This theory acts like the relativity of space-time. The redshift is interpreted as a perspective parameter *p*(*t*_{c}) = *t*_{c}/*T*. Using gravitation, it is the Einstein effect applied to the uni-verse. This paper comments and interprets further consequences of this new theory. We emphasize the difference between duration (as usually used in classical cosmologic metrics) and the cosmic time *t*_{c} as a notion of date. It induces two related effects: relativity of speed of light and time stretching. We explain why the cosmological standard model is not well suited to describe the Hubble law, to describe the universe. We also explain why gravitation and temperature increase when going from the center to the edge of the universe, when going from present to birth. The model has no use of black energy. As a consequence, the universe is seen as a black hole created by the cosmic time shock wave when *t*_{c} = 0.

Up to now, cosmology metrics have been based on Einstein relativity, established in 1905. Hubble has discovered the correlation between redshift and distance. Cosmology interprets the redshift as an expansion effect a(

KEYWORDS

Hubble Law, Space-Time, Relativity, Light Speed, Universe Expansion, Redshift, Big Bang, Black Hole, Cosmic Time

Hubble Law, Space-Time, Relativity, Light Speed, Universe Expansion, Redshift, Big Bang, Black Hole, Cosmic Time

Cite this paper

Churoux, P. (2015) The Relativity of Cosmic Time: The Universe Is a Black Hole.*Journal of Modern Physics*, **6**, 1840-1851. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2015.613188.

Churoux, P. (2015) The Relativity of Cosmic Time: The Universe Is a Black Hole.

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www.pragtec.com/physique

[1] Hubble, E. and Humason, M.L. (1931) The Astrophysical Journal, 74, 43.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/143323

[2] Suzuki, et al. (2011) The Astrophysical Journal, 746, 85.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/746/1/85

[3] Churoux, P. (2015) Journal of Modern Physics, 6, 1227-1232.

http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2015.69127

[4] Marosi, L.A. (2014) Journal of Modern Physics, 5, 29-33.

http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2014.51005

[5] NIST Standard Reference.

http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Constants/index.html

[6] Wang, X.F., et al. (2006) The Astrophysical Journal, 645, 488, 505.

[7] Gourgoulhon, E. “Relativité générale”.

http://luth.obspm.fr/”luthier/gourgoulhon/fr/master/relat.html

[8] Hirata, C.M. (2012) Lecture IX.

http://www.tapir.caltech.edu/~chirata/ph236/lec09.pdf

[9] Wright, E. (2001) Cosmic Microwave Background, Encyclopedia of Astronomy & Astrophysics.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1888/0333750888/1634

[10] Meneghetti, M. “Introduction to Gravitaional lensing”.

http://www.ita.uni heidelberg.de/~massimo/sub/Lectures/gl_all.pdf

[11] Mercier, C. (2011) The Speed of Light May Not Be Constant.

www.pragtec.com/physique