JSSM  Vol.8 No.5 , October 2015
The Other Side of Goal Orientation and Training Outcomes: Mediating Role of Training Motivation
ABSTRACT
The effect of goal orientation on training motivation and training outcomes is measured from a sample of 216 employees. The empirical evidence confirms that state goal orientation is a three dimensional construct (performance, learning and refusal) and it predicts training motivation and training outcomes. It establishes that training programs in organizations have learning and less explored “non-learning” outcomes. And training motivation mediates the relationship between goal orientation and both outcomes. Implications of these new insights for academicians and practitioners are discussed.

Cite this paper
Rasool, H. , Bashir, F. , Rauf-i-Azam, &. and Nasir, Z. (2015) The Other Side of Goal Orientation and Training Outcomes: Mediating Role of Training Motivation. Journal of Service Science and Management, 8, 726-740. doi: 10.4236/jssm.2015.85074.
References
[1]   Elangovan, A.R. and Karakowsky, L. (1999) The Effects of Trainee and Environmental Factors on Transfer of Training: A Framework for Research. Leadership and Organizational Development Journal, 20, 268-275.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437739910287180

[2]   Blanchard, N.P. and Thacker, W.J. (2004) Effective Training: Systems, Strategies, and Practices. 2nd Edition, Pearson Education, India.

[3]   Kitching, J. and Blackburn, R. (1999) Management Training and Networking in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Three European Regions: Implications for Business Support, Environment and Planning. Government and Policy, 17, 621-635.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/c170621

[4]   Campanelli, P., Channell, J., McCauley L., Renouf, A. and Thomas, R. (1994) Training: An Explanation of the Word and Concept with an Analysis of the Implications for Survey Design. Employment Department, Research Series, 30.

[5]   Colquitt, J.A., LePine, J.A. and Noe, R.A. (2000) Toward an Integrative Theory of Training Motivation: A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis of 20 Years of Research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 679-707.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.5.678

[6]   Elliot, A.J. and McGregor, H.A. (2001) A 2 × 2 Achievement Goal Framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 501-518.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.80.3.501

[7]   Towler, A.J. and Dipboye, R.L. (2001) Effects of Trainer Expressiveness, Organization, and Trainee Goal Orientation on Training Outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 664-673.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.4.664

[8]   Brown, K.G. (2001) Using Computers to Deliver Training: Which Employees Learn and Why? Personnel Psychology, 54, 271-296.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2001.tb00093.x

[9]   Chiaburu, D.S. and Tekleab, A.G. (2005) Individual and Contextual Influences on Multiple Dimensions of Training Effectiveness. Journal of European Industrial Training, 29, 604-626.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/03090590510627085

[10]   Dweck, C.S. (1989) Motivation. In: Lesgold, A. and Glaser, R., Eds., Foundations for a Psychology of Education, Hillsdale, Erlbaum, 87-136.

[11]   Dweck, C.S. and Leggett, E.L. (1988) A Social-Cognitive Approach to Motivation and Personality. Psychological Review, 95, 256-272.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.95.2.256

[12]   Elliot, A.J. (1999) Approach and Avoidance Motivation and Achievement Goals. Educational Psychologist, 34, 169-188.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep3403_3

[13]   Elliot, A.J. and McGregor, H.A. (1999) Test Anxiety and the Hierarchical Model of Approach and Avoidance Achievement Motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 628-644.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.76.4.628

[14]   Vande Walle, D. and Cummings, L.L. (1997) A Test of the Influence of Goal Orientation on the Feedback-Seeking Process. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 390-400.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.82.3.390

[15]   Vande Walle, D., Cron, W.L. and Slocum, J.W.J. (2001) The Role of Goal Orientation Following Performance Feedback. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 629-640.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.4.629

[16]   Ford, J.K., Smith, E.M., Weissbein, D.A., Gully, S.M. and Salas, E. (1998) Relationships of Goal Orientation, Metacognitive Activity and Practice Strategies with Learning Outcomes and Transfer. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 218-232.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.83.2.218

[17]   Dweck, C.S. (1986) Motivational Processes Affect Learning. American Psychologist, 41, 1040-1048.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.41.10.1040

[18]   Payne, C.S., Youngcourt, S.S. and Beaubien, J.M. (2007) A Meta-Analytic Examination of the Goal Orientation Nomological Net. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 128-150.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.92.1.128

[19]   Howard, J.K., Noe, A.R. and Wang, C. (2006) Motivation to Learn and Course Outcomes: The Impact of Delivery Mode, Learning Goal Orientation, and Perceived Barriers and Enablers. Personnel Psychology, 59, 665-702.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2006.00050.x

[20]   Blau, P. (1964) Exchange and Power in Social Life. Wiley, New York.

[21]   Wayne, S.J., Shore, L.M. and Liden, R.C. (1997) Perceived Organizational Support and Leader-Member Exchange: A Social Exchange Perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 40, 82-111.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/257021

[22]   Gouldner, A.W. (1960) The Norm of Reciprocity: A Preliminary Statement. American Sociological Review, 25, 161-178.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2092623

[23]   Potosky, D. and Ramakrishna, V. (2002) The Moderating Role of Updating Climate Perceptions in the Relationship between Goal Orientation, Self-Efficacy and Job Performance. Human Performance, 15, 275-297.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15327043HUP1503_03

[24]   Lim, D.H. and Johnson, S.D. (2002) Trainee Perceptions of Factors That Influence Learning Transfer. International Journal of Training and Development, 6, 36-48.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2419.00148

[25]   Colquitt, J.S. and Simmering, M.J. (1998) Conscientiousness, Goal Orientation, and Motivation to Learn during the Learning Process: A Longitudinal Field Study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 654-664.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.83.4.654

[26]   Rouiller, J.Z. and Goldstein, I.L. (1993) The Relationship between Organizational Transfer Climate and Positive Transfer of Training. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 4, 377-390.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hrdq.3920040408

[27]   Rasool, A.H., Bashir, A.F. and Azam, I.R. (2010) Pre-Training Motivation and the Effectiveness of Transformational Leadership Training: An Experiment. Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 9, 123-131.

[28]   Mathieu, J.E. and Martineau, J.W. (1997) Individual and Situational Influences in Training Motivation. In: Ford, J.K., Kozlowski, S.W.J., Kraiger, K., Salas, E. and Teachout, M.S., Eds., Improving Training Effectiveness in Work Organizations, LEA, Mahwah, 193-222.

[29]   Ree, M.J. and Earles, J.A. (1991) Predicting Training Success: Not Much More than g. Personnel Psychology, 44, 321-332.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1991.tb00961.x

[30]   Mathieu, J.E., Martineau, J.W. and Tannenbaum, S.I. (1993) Individual and Situational Influences on the Development of Self-Efficacy: Implications for Training Effectiveness. Personnel Psychology, 46, 125-146.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1993.tb00870.x

[31]   Brett, J.F. and Vande Walle, D. (1999) Goal Orientation and Specific Goal Content as Predictors of Performance Outcomes in a Training Program. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 863-872.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.84.6.863

[32]   Farr, J.L., Hofmann, D.A. and Ringenbach, K.L. (1993) Goal Orientation and Action Control Theory: Implications for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. In: Cooper, C.I. and Robertson, I.T., Eds., International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Wiley, Chichester, 193-232.

[33]   Fisher, S.L. and Ford, J.K. (1998) Differential Effects of Learner Effort and Goal Orientation on Two Learning Outcomes. Personnel Psychology, 51, 397-420.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1998.tb00731.x

[34]   Vande Walle, D., Cron, W.L. and Slocum, J.W.J. (2001) The Role of Goal Orientation Following Performance Feedback. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 629-640.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.4.629

[35]   Matteson, T.M. and Ivancevich, M.J. (1987) Controlling Work Stress: Effective Human Resource and Management Strategies. Jossey Bass Business and Management Series, New York.

[36]   Klein, H.J., Noe, R.A. and Wang, C. (2006) Motivation to Learn and Course Outcomes: The Impact of Delivery Mode, Learning Goal Orientation and Perceived Barriers and Enablers. Personnel Psychology, 59, 665-702.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2006.00050.x

[37]   Cohen, D.J. (1990) What Motivates Trainees? Training & Development Journal, 36, 91-93.

[38]   Noe, R.A. and Schmitt, N. (1986) The Influence of Trainee Attitudes on Training Effectiveness: Test of a Model. Personnel Psychology, 39, 497-523.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1986.tb00950.x

[39]   Tracey, J.B., Timothy, R. and Mathieu, J.E. (2001) The Influence of Individual Characteristics and the Work Environment on Varying Levels of Training Outcomes. Human Resource Development, 12, 5-23.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1532-1096(200101/02)12:1<5::AID-HRDQ2>3.0.CO;2-J

[40]   Maurer, T.J. and Tarulli, B.A. (1994) Investigation of Perceived Environment, Perceived Outcome, and Person Variables in Relationship to Voluntary Development Activity by Employees. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 3-14.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.79.1.3

[41]   Noe, R.A. and Wilk, S.L. (1993) Investigation of the Factors That Influence Employee’s Participation in Development Activities. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 291-302.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.78.2.291

[42]   Ryman, D.H. and Biersner, R.J. (1975) Attitudes Predictive of Driving Success. Personnel Psychology, 28, 181-188.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1975.tb01379.x

[43]   Cheng, E.W.L. and Ho, D.C.K. (2001) A Review of Transfer of Training Studies in the Past Decade. Personnel Review, 30, 102-117.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00483480110380163

[44]   Axtell, C.M. and Maitlis, S. (1997) Predicting Immediate and Longer-Term Transfer of Training. Personnel Review, 26, 201-212.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00483489710161413

[45]   Tannenbaum, S.I. and Yukl, G. (1992) Training and Development in Work Organizations. Annual Review of Psychology, 43, 399-441.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.43.020192.002151

[46]   Noe, R.A. (1986) Trainees’ Attributes and Attitudes: Neglected Influences on Training Effectiveness. Academy of Management Review, 11, 736-749.

[47]   Kitching, J. and Blackburn, R. (1999) Management Training and Networking in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Three European Regions: Implications for Business Support, Environment and Planning. Government and Policy, 17, 621-635.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/c170621

[48]   Campanelli, P., Channell, J., McCauley, L., Renouf, A. and Thomas, R. (1994) Training: An Explanation of the Word and Concept with an Analysis of the Implications for Survey Design. Employment Department, Research Series, London.

[49]   Lingg, M.A. (1996) Training for Job-Skill Confidence. Journal of Career Development, 22, 261-271.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089484539602200404

[50]   Weaver, M. (1996) Empowering Employees through Basic Skill Training. Quality Resources Inc., New York.

[51]   Wilson, F. (1994) Introducing New Computer-Based Systems at Zenbank. Technology, Work and Employment, 9, 115-125.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-005X.1994.tb00055.x

[52]   Austrin, T. (1991) Flexibility, Surveillance and Hype in New Zealand Retailing. Work, Employment and Society, 5, 201-220.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0950017091005002004

[53]   Baldwin, T.T., Magjuka, R.J. and Loher, B.T. (1991) The Perils of Participation: Effects of Choice of Training on Trainee Motivation and Learning. Personnel Psychology, 44, 51-65.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1991.tb00690.x

[54]   Martocchio, J.J. and Webster, J. (1992) Effects of Feedback and Cognitive Playfulness on Performance in Microcomputer Software Training. Personnel Psychology, 45, 553-577.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1992.tb00860.x

[55]   Quinones, M.A. (1995) Pre-training context effects: Training assignment as feedback. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80: 226–238.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.80.2.226

[56]   Tannenbaum, S.I., Mathieu, J.E., Salas, E. and Cannon-Bowers, J.A. (1991) Meeting Trainees’ Expectations: The Influence of Training Fulfillment on the Development of Commitment, Self-Efficacy, and Motivation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 759-769.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.76.6.759

[57]   Preacher, K.J. and Hayes, A.F. (2004) SPSS and SAS Procedures for Estimating Indirect Effects in Simple Mediation Models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments and Computers, 36, 717-731.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF03206553

[58]   Button, S.B., Mathieu, J.E. and Zajac, D.M. (1996) Goal Orientation in Organizational Research: A Conceptual and Empirical Foundation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 67, 26-48.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/obhd.1996.0063

[59]   Williams, J.R. and Levy, P.E. (1992) The Effects of Perceived System Knowledge on the Agreement between Self Rating and Supervisor Rating. Personal Psychology, 45, 835-847.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1992.tb00970.x

 
 
Top