OJEMD  Vol.5 No.10 , October 2015
Effects of Aerobic Exercise on the Intramuscular Lipid and Glycogen Content of Fiber Types in Soleus Muscles of Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis Model Rats
Abstract: We studied the effects of exercise on muscle mitochondria, and lipid and glycogen content in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into 3 groups: the control group was fed standard chow; the NASH group was fed a methionine-choline-deficient high-fat diet (MCD); the NASH-exercise group was fed the MCD and exercised three times a week. Exercise training consisted of continuous running for thirty minutes at a 13 m/min, 6° slope on a motor-driven rodent treadmill for 6 weeks. Mitochondria content in NASH group decreased in the both fiber types compared with those of the control group. As compared between the NASH and NASH-exercise groups, however, exercise not only promoted significant improvements in liver fibrosis and cirrhosis and triglyceride (TG) content but also increased mitochondria content in type I muscle fiber in particular. These data suggest that exercise improved hepatic steatosis in NASH model rats and can prevent the progression of NASH.
Cite this paper: Mochizuki, M. , Hayashi, E. , Yoshimura, A. , Toyoda, Y. , Mei, L. and Hasegawa, N. (2015) Effects of Aerobic Exercise on the Intramuscular Lipid and Glycogen Content of Fiber Types in Soleus Muscles of Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis Model Rats. Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, 5, 131-137. doi: 10.4236/ojemd.2015.510017.

[1]   Neuschwander-Tetri, B.A. and Caldwell, S.H. (2003) Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis: Summary of an AASLD Single Topic Conference. Hepatology, 37, 1202-1219.

[2]   Schrauwen-Hinderling, V.B., Hesselink, M.K., Schrauwen, P. and Kooi, M.E. (2006) Intramyocellular Lipid Content in Human Skeletal Muscle. Obesity, 14, 357-367.

[3]   Saksena, S., Johnson, J., Ouiff, S.P. and Elias, E. (1999) Diet and Exercise: Important First Steps in Therapy of NASH. Hepatology, 30, 436A.

[4]   Rabol, R., Petersen, K.F., Dufour, S., Flannery, C. and Shulman, G.I. (2011) Reversal of Muscle Insulin Resistance with Exercise Reduces Postprandial Hepatic de Novo Lipogenesis in Insulin-Resistant Individuals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 108, 13705-13709.

[5]   Kitajima. Y., Hyogo. H., Sumida, Y., Eguchi, Y., Ono, N., Kuwashiro, T., Tanaka, K., Takahashi, H., Mizuta, T., Ozaki, I., Eguchi, T., Kimura, Y., Fujimoto, K. and Anzai, K. (2013) Severity of Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis Is Associated with Substitution of Adipose Tissue in Skeletal Muscle. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 28, 1507-1514.

[6]   Van Loon, L.J.C., Koopman, R., Manders, R., van der Weegen, W., van Kranenburg, G.P. and Keizer, H.A. (2004) Intramyocellular Lipid Content in Type 2 Diabetes Patients Compared with Overweight Sedentary Men and Highly Trained Endurance Athletes. Endocrinology and Metabolism—American Journal of Physiology, 287, E558-E565.

[7]   Holloszy, J.O. and Coyle, E.F. (1984) Adaptations of Skeletal Muscle to Endurance Exercise and Their Metabolic Consequences. Journal of Applied Physiology, 56, 831-838.

[8]   Van Loon, L.J.C. and Goodpaster, B.H. (2006) Increased Intramuscular Lipid Storage in the Insulin-Resistant and Endurance-Trained State. Pflugers Arch, 451, 606-616.

[9]   Goforth Jr., H.W., Laurent, D., Prusaczyk, W.K., Schneider, K.E., Petersen, K.F. and Shulman, G.I. (2003) Effects of Depletion Exercise and Light Training on Muscle Glycogen Supercompensation in Men. Endocrinology and Metabolism—American Journal of Physiology, 285, E1304-E1311.

[10]   Hardman, A.E. and Williams, C. (1989) Increased Dietary Carbohydrate and Endurance during Single-Leg Cycling Using a Limb with Normal Muscle Glycogen Concentration. Journal of Sports Science, 7, 127-138.

[11]   Romijn, J.A. and Pijl, H. (2009) The Muscle-Liver Axis: Does Aerobic Fitness Induce Intrahepatic Protection against Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease? The Journal of Physiology, 587, 1637.

[12]   Anstee, Q.M., Concas, D., Kudo, H., Levene, A., Pollard, J., Charlton, P., Thomas, H.C., Thursz, M.R. and Goldin, R.D. (2010) Impact of Pan-Caspase Inhibition in Animal Models of Established Steatosis and Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis. Journal of Hepatology, 53, 542-550.

[13]   Hwang, J.H., Pan, J.W., Heydari, S., Hetherington, H.P. and Stein, D.T. (2001) Regional Differences in Intramyocellular Lipids in Humans Observed by in Vivo 1H-MR Spectroscopic Imaging. Journal of Applied Physiology, 90, 1267-1274.

[14]   Yoshimura, A., Toyoda, Y., Murakami, T., Yoshizato, H., Ando, Y. and Fujitsuka, N. (2005) Glycogen Depletion in Intrafusal Fibres Short-Duration High-Intensity Treadmill Running. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 185, 41-50.

[15]   Mochizuki, M. and Hasegawa, N. (2005) Metabolic Effect of Exercise in Ovariectomized Mature Multiparous Rats. Journal of Health Science, 51, 731-733.

[16]   Snow, D.H., Billeter, R., Mascarello, F., Carpenè, E., Rowlerson, A. and Jenny, E. (1982) No Classical Type IIB Fibers in Dog Skeletal Muscle. Histochemistry, 75, 53-65.

[17]   Pearse, A.G.E. (1957) Intracellular Localization of Dehydrogenase Systems Using Monotetrazolium Salts and Metal Chelation of Their Formazans. Journal of Histochemistry & Cytochemistry, 5, 515-527.

[18]   Koopman, R., Schaart, G. and Hesselink, M.K. (2001) Optimisation of Oil Red O Staining Permits Combination with Immunofluorescence and Automated Quantification of Lipid. Histochemistry and Cell Biology, 116, 63-68.

[19]   Machann, J., H?ring, H., Schick, F. and Stumvoll, M. (2004) Intramyocellular Lipids and Insulin Resistance. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 6, 239-248.

[20]   Folch, J., Lees, M. and Sloane-Stanley, G.H. (1957) A Simple Method for the Isolation and Purification of Total Lipids from Animal Tissues. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 226, 497-509.

[21]   Reid, A.E. (2001) Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis. Gastroenterology, 121, 710-723.

[22]   Hoppeler, H. and Fluck, M. (2003) Plasticity of Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria: Structure and Function. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 35, 95-104.

[23]   Howald, H., Hoppeler, H., Claassen, H., Mathieu, O. and Straub, R. (1985) Influences of Endurance Training on the Ultrastructural Composition of the Different Muscle Fiber Types in Humans. Pflügers Archiv, 403, 369-376.

[24]   Pruchnic, R., Katsiaras, A., He, J., Kelley, D.E., Winters, C. and Goodpaster, B.H. (2004) Exercise Training Increases Intramyocellular Lipid and Oxidative Capacity in Older Adults. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, 287, E857-E862.

[25]   Dubé, J.J., Amati, F., Stefanovic-Racic, M., Toledo, F.G., Sauers, S.E. and Goodpaster, B.H. (2008) Exercise-Induced Alterations in Intramyocellular Lipids and Insulin Resistance: The Athlete’s Paradox Revisited. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, 294, E882-E888.

[26]   Perseghin, G., Scifo, P., De, Cobelli, F., Pagliato, E., Battezzati, A., Arcelloni, C., Vanzulli, A., Testolin, G., Pozza, G., Del, Maschino, A. and Luzil, L. (1999) Intramyocellular Triglyceride Content Is a Determinant of in Vivo Insulin Resistance in Humans: A 1H-13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Assessment in Offspring of Type 2 Diabetic Parents. Diabetes, 48, 1600-1606.

[27]   Shepherd, R.E. and Gollnick, P.D. (1976) Oxygen Uptake of Rats at Different Work Intensities. Pflügers Archiv, 362, 219-222.

[28]   Armstrong, R.B. and Taylor, C.R. (1993) Glycogen Loss in Rat Muscles during Locomotion on Different Inclines. Journal of Experimental Biology, 176, 135-144.