ABC  Vol.5 No.6 , October 2015
Pollutants, Snails, Oxidative-Stress, Organophosphates, Metals
ABSTRACT
Aquatic reservoirs remain the ultimate sink of chemical pollutants emanating from anthropogenic activities such as agriculture, mining and industry. Freshwater biota undoubtedly is at risk from the adverse effects of these water pollutants and there is therefore, a need to monitor effects of these chemical pollutants in order to safeguard the health of aquatic biota. We investigated the oxidative stress effects of chlorpyrifos and lead on the freshwater snail Helisoma duryi to assess the potential of using this enzyme system as a biondicator of exposure to environmental pollutants. Groups of snails were exposed to 5 ppb lead acetate and 25 ppb chlorpyrifos for 7 days after which half of the snails were sacrificed and the other half were allowed to recover in clean water and sacrificed after another 7 days. Post mitochondrial fractions were used to measure the activities of the following antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase and diphosphotriphosphodiaphorase. Both pollutants enhanced the activities of all the antioxidant enzymes suggesting a defensive mechanism by the snail to combat the oxidative stress due to the organophosphate chlopryrifos and metal pollutant lead. There was a significant recovery of the antioxidant defense system of the snails allowed to recover in clean water shown by the reduced alteration of the antioxidant enzyme activities of the snails allowed to recover for 7 days. This suggests the need to minimize exposure of aquatic biota to chemical pollutants and remediate the polluted water reservoirs in order to safeguard the health of aquatic life.

Cite this paper
Basopo, N. and Ngabaza, T. (2015) Pollutants, Snails, Oxidative-Stress, Organophosphates, Metals. Advances in Biological Chemistry, 5, 225-233. doi: 10.4236/abc.2015.56019.
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