AJAC  Vol.6 No.11 , October 2015
Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination of Sludge in India
Abstract: Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) exist in all compartments of the ecosystem due to wide industrial applications and production during burning processes. The PCBs congeners were quantified in the industrial, municipal and agricultural wastes of the most industrialized area of the country, Raipur city, India. The concentration of ΣPCBs in the sludge, sewage and agriculture wastes (n = 4) was ranged from 497 - 800 μg/kg with mean value of 634 ± 146 μg/kg. The PCBs congeners detected in the waste materials were ranged from 56 - 85 with mean value of 75 ± 13. The highest number of congeners was quantified in the sludge materials due to the existence of the heavy PCBs. The PCBs congeners were found to decrease vertically due to the adsorption by the geo-media. The distribution, sources and toxicities of PCBs congeners in the waste materials are discussed.
Cite this paper: Patel, K. , Ramteke, S. , Sahu, B. , Nayak, Y. , Sharma, S. and Hung, C. (2015) Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination of Sludge in India. American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 6, 867-877. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2015.611082.

[1]   Weber, R., Gaus, C., Tysklind, M., Johnston, P., Forter, M., Hollert, H., Heinisch, E., Holoubek, I., Lloyd-Smith, M., Masunaga, S., Moccarelli, P., Santillo, D., Seike, N., Symons, R., Torres, J.P., Verta, M., Varbelow, G., Vijgen, J., Watson, A., Costner, P., Woelz, J., Wycisk, P. and Zennegg, M. (2008) Dioxin- and POP-Contaminated Sites—Contemporary and Future Relevance and Challenges: Overview on Background, Aims and Scope of the Series. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 15, 363-393.

[2]   Nguyen, H.M., Tu, B.M., Watanabe, M., Kunisue, T., Monirith, I., Tanabe, S., Sakai, S., Sasikumar, K., Bui, C.T., Tana, T.S., Annamalai, S., Viet, P.H. and Prudente, M.S. (2003) Open Dumping Site in Asian Developing Countries: A Potential Source of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-P-Dioxins and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans. Environmental Science and Technology, 37, 1493-1502.

[3]   ATSDR (2001) Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

[4]   UNEP (2004) Inventory of World-Wide PCB Destruction Capacity. United Nations Environment Programme, UNEP Chemicals, Geneva.

[5]   IPCS (2003) Poly-chlorinated Biphenyls: Human Health Aspects. World Health Organization, International Programme on Chemical Safety Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 55, Geneva.

[6]   McGrath, D., Postma, L., McCormack, R.J. and Dowdall C. (2000) Analysis of Irish Sewage Sludges: Suitability of Sludge for Use in Agriculture. Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research, 39, 73-78.

[7]   Bright, D.A. and Healey N. (2003) Contaminant Risks from Biosolids Land Application: Contemporary Organic Contaminant Levels in Digested Sewage Sludge from Five Treatment Plants in Greater Vancouver, British Columbia. Environmental Pollution, 126, 39-49.

[8]   Stevens, J.L., Northcott, G.L., Stern, G.A., Tomy, G.T. and Jones, K.C. (2003) PAHs, PCBs, PCNs, Organochlorine Pesticides, Synthetic Musks, and Polychlorinated n-Alkanes in U.K. Sewage Sludge: Survey Results and Implications. Environmental Science and Technology, 37, 462-467.

[9]   Blanchard, M., Teil, M.J., Ollivon, D., Legenti, L. and Chevreueil, M. (2004) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Polychlorobiphenyls in Wastewaters and Sewage Sludgs from the Paris Area (France). Environmental Research, 95, 184-197.

[10]   Katsoyiannis, A. and Samara, C. (2004) Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in the Sewage Treatment Plant of Thessaloniki, Northern Greece: Occurrence and Removal. Water Research, 38, 2685-2698.

[11]   Abad, E., Martínez, K., Planas, C., Palacios, O., Caixach, J. and Rivera, J. (2005) Priority Organic Pollutant Assessment of Sludges for Agricultural Purposes. Chemosphere, 61, 1358-1369.

[12]   Harrison, E.Z., Oakes, S.R., Hysell, M. and Hay, A. (2006) Organic Chemicals in Sewage Sludges. Science of the Total Environment, 367, 481-497.

[13]   Cai, Q.Y., Mo, C.H., Wu, Q.T., Zeng, Q.Y. and Katsoyiannis, A. (2007) Occurrence of Organic Contaminants in Sewage Sludges from Eleven Wastewater Treatment Plants, China. Chemosphere, 68, 1751-1762.

[14]   Guo, L., Zhang, B., Xiao, K., Zhang, Q. and Zheng, M. (2009) Levels and Distributions of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Sewage Sludge of Urban Wastewater Treatment Plants. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 21, 468-473.

[15]   Clarke, B.O., Porter, N.A., Marriott, P.J. and Blackbeard, J.R. (2010) Investigating the Levels and Trends of Organochlorine Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyl in Sewage Sludge. Environment International, 36, 323-329.

[16]   Kumar, B., Verma, V.K., Kumar, S. and Sharma, C.S. (2013) Probabilistic Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Urban Soils from a Tropical City of India. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A, Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering, 48, 1253-1263.

[17]   Kumar, B., Verma, V.K., Singh, S.A., Kumar, S., Sharma, C.S. and Akolkar, A.B. (2014) Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Residential Soils and their Health Risk and Hazard in an Industrial City in India. Journal of Public Health Research, 3, 252.

[18]   Walkley, A. and Black, I.A. (1934) An Examination of the Degtjareff Method for Determining Soil Organic Matter and a Proposed Modification of the Chromic Acid Titration Method. Soil Science, 37, 29-38.

[19]   Wade, T.L., Atlas, E.L., Brooks, J.M., Kennicutt, M.C., Fox, R.G., Sericano, J., Garcia-Romero, B. and Defreitas, D. (1988) NOAA Gulf of Mexico Status and Trends Program: Trace Organic Contaminant Distribution in Sediments and Oysters. Estuaries, 11, 171-179.

[20]   Sericano, J.L. (2002) Quantitative Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Using the Selected Ion Monitoring Mode, Texas A and M University. Geochemical and Environmental Research Group Standard Operating Procedures, SOP-0205, 24.

[21]   Muri, G., Cermelj, B., Faganeli, J. and Brancelj, A. (2002) Black Carbon in Slovenian Alpine Lacustrine Sediments. Chemosphere, 46, 1225-1234.

[22]   Grossman, A. and Ghosh, U. (2009) Measurement of Activated Carbon and Other Black Carbons in Sediments. Chemosphere, 75, 469-475.

[23]   Sun, X., Peng, P., Song, J., Zhang, G. and Hu, J. (2008) Sedimentary Record of Black Carbon in the Pearl River Estuary and Adjacent Northern South China Sea. Applied Geochemistry, 23, 3464-3472.

[24]   Sapozhnikova, Y., Zubcov, E., Zubcov, N. and Schlenk, D. (2005) Occurrence of Pesticides, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), and Heavy Metals in Sediments from the Dniester River, Moldova. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 49, 439-448.

[25]   Bobovnikova, T., Dibtseva, A., Mitroshkov, A. and Pleskachevskaya, G. (1993) Ecological Assessment of a Region with PCB Emissions Using Samples of Soil, Vegetation and Breast Milk: A Case Study. Science of the Total Environment, 139-140, 357-364.