AMPC  Vol.5 No.10 , October 2015
Effect of Zr on Structural and Dielectrical Properties of (Ba0.9Mg1.0)(ZrxTi1-x)O3 Ceramics
ABSTRACT
Barium titanate, BaTiO3 (BTO) is the most common ferro electric material, which is used to manufacture electronic components such as multilayer capacitors, positive temperature coefficient thermistors, piezo electric transdures, and ferro electric memory. Zr doped barium magnesium titanate (Ba0.9Mg1.0)(ZrxTi1-x)O3 (with x = 0.10, 0.20, 0.40 (BMZT 10, BMZT 20 and BMZT 40) perovskite is prepared by conventional solid state reaction method. The starting raw materials were BaCO3, TiO2, MgO and ZrO2. The XRD study at room temperature suggests that these have cubic and tetragonal symmetry phases. The behavior of the measured dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss with temperature and frequency reveals that the materials undergo a diffuse para-ferroelectric phase transition and are of the relaxor type. The crystal structure, surface morphology and dielectric properties of Zr and Mg doped barium titanate ceramics were investigated. Zr4+ and Mg2+ ions have entered the unit cell maintaining the perovskite structure of solid solution without the evidence of any additional phase when Mg content is 0.1 mole% and the Zr content is 0.10, 0.20 and 0.40 mole%.

Cite this paper
Gattu, S. , Prasadu, V. and Ramesh, K. (2015) Effect of Zr on Structural and Dielectrical Properties of (Ba0.9Mg1.0)(ZrxTi1-x)O3 Ceramics. Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry, 5, 419-425. doi: 10.4236/ampc.2015.510042.
References
[1]   Takenaka, T. and Nagata, H. (2005) Current Status and Prospects of Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ceramics. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 25, 2693-2700.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2005.03.125

[2]   Saito, Y., Takao, H., Tani, T., et al. (2004) Lead-Free Piezoceramics. Nature, 432, 84-87.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature03028

[3]   Dixit, A., Majumder, S.B., Katiyar, R.S. and Bhalla, A.S. (2003) Relaxor Behavior in Sol-Gel-Derived BaZr(0.40)Ti(0.60)O3 Thin Films. Applied Physics Letters, 82, 2679.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1568166

[4]   Dobal, P.S., Katiyar, R.S. and Raman, J. (2002) Studies on Ferroelectric Perovskites and Bi-Layered Compounds Using Micro-Raman Spectroscopy. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 33, 405-423.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jrs.876

[5]   Dixit, A., Majumder, S.B., Savvinov, A., Katiyar, R.S., Guo, R. and Bhalla, A.S. (2002) Investigations on the Sol-Gel-Derived Barium Zirconium Titanate Thin Films. Materials Letters, 56, 933-940.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-577X(02)00640-7

[6]   Paik, D.S., Park, S.E., Wada, S., Liu, S.F. and Shrout, T.R. (1999) E-Field Induced Phase Transition in <001>-Oriented Rhombohedral 0.92Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.08PbTiO3 Crystals. Journal of Applied Physics, 85, 1080.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.369252

[7]   Yu, Z., Ang, C., Guo, R. and Bhalla, A.S. (2002) Dielectric Properties and High Tunability of Ba(Ti0.7Zr0.3)O3 Ceramics under dc Electric Field. Applied Physics Letters, 81, 1285.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1498496

[8]   Dash, S.K., Kant, S., Dalai, B., Swain, M.D. and Swain, B.B. (2014) Characterization and Dielectric Properties of Barium Zirconium Titanate Prepared by Solid State Reaction and High Energy Ball Milling Processes. Journal of Applied Physics, 88, 129-135.

[9]   Badapanda, T., Cavalcante, L.S., da Luz Jr., G.E., Batista, N.C., Anwar, S. and Longo, E. (2013) Effect of Yttrium Doping in Barium Zirconium Titanate Ceramics: A Structural, Impedance, and Modulus Spectroscopy Study. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 44, 4296.

[10]   Chen, T., Zhang, T., Zhou, J.F., Zhang, J.W., Liu, Y.H. and Wang, G.C. (2012) Piezoelectric Properties of [(K1-xNax)0.95Li0.05]0.985Ca0.015(Nb0.95Sb0.05)0.985Ti0.015O3 Lead-Free Ceramics. Indian Journal of Physics, 86, 443-446.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12648-012-0087-1

[11]   Mitic, V.V., Nikolic, Z.S., Pavlovic, V.B., Paunovic, V., Miljkovic, M., Jordovic, B. and Zivkovic, L. (2010) Influence of Rare-Earth Dopants on Barium Titanate Ceramics Microstructure and Corresponding Electrical Properties. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 93, 132-137.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1551-2916.2009.03309.x

[12]   Jung, W.S., Kim, J.H., Kim, H.T. and Yoon, D.H. (2010) Effect of Temperature Schedule on the Particle Size of Barium Titanate during Solid-State Reaction. Materials Letters, 64, 170-172.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2009.10.035

[13]   Cao, W.Q., Xiong, J.W. and Sun, J.P. (2007) Dielectric Behavior of Nb-Doped Ba(ZrxTi1-x)O3. Materials Chemistry and Physics, 106, 338-342.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2007.06.017

[14]   Singh, S.V., Thakur, A.N., Singh, O.P., Kumar, S.C. and Ahmad, A. (2009) Dielectric Properties of PbSrWO4 and PbBaWO4 Compounds. Indian Journal of Physics, 83, 375-381.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12648-009-0125-9

[15]   Chen, T., Wang, H.L., Zhang, T., Zhou, J.F., Zhang, J.W., Liu, Y.H. and Wang, G.C. (2013) Piezoelectric Properties of La and Nb Co-Modified Bi4Ti3O12 High-Temperature Ceramics. Indian Journal of Physics, 87, 629-631.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12648-013-0278-4

[16]   Parkash, O., Kumar, D., Dwivedi, R.K., Srivastava, K.K., Singh, P. and Singh, S. (2007) Effect of Simultaneous Substitution of La and Mn on Dielectric Behavior of Barium Titanate Ceramic. Journal of Materials Science, 42, 5490-5496.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10853-006-0985-8

[17]   Langhammer, H.T., Müller, T., Bottcher, R. and Abicht, H.P. (2008) Structural and Optical Properties of Chromium-Doped Hexagonal Barium Titanate Ceramics. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 20, Article ID: 085206.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0953-8984/20/8/085206

[18]   Lu, D.Y., Toda, M. and Sugano, M. (2006) High-Permittivity Double Rare-Earth-Doped Barium Titanate Ceramics with Diffuse Phase Transition. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 89, 3112-3123.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1551-2916.2006.00893.x

[19]   Chen, Z.W. and Chu, J.Q. (2008) Piezoelectric and Dielectric Properties of Bi0.5(Na0.84K0.16)0.5TiO3-Ba(Zr0.04Ti0.96)O3 Lead Free Piezoelectric Ceramics. Advances in Applied Ceramics, 107, 222-226.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/174367608X263403

[20]   Fu, C.L., Cai, W., Chen, H.W., Feng, S.C., Pan, F.S. and Yang, C.R. (2008) Voltage Tunable Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 Thin Films and Coplanar Phase Shifters. Thin Solid Films, 516, 5258-5261.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2007.07.059

[21]   Cai, W., Fu, C.L., Gao, J.C. and Chen, H.Q. (2009) Effects of Grain Size on Domain Structure and Ferroelectric Properties of Barium Zirconate Titanate Ceramics. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 480, 870-873.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2009.02.049

[22]   Du, F.T., Yu, P.F., Cui, B., Cheng, H.O. and Chang, Z.G. (2009) Preparation and Characterization of Monodisperse Ag Nanoparticles Doped Barium Titanate Ceramics. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 478, 620-623.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2008.11.099

[23]   Yuan, Y., Zhang, S.R., Zhou, X.H. and Tang, B. (2009) Effects of Nb2O5 Doping on the Microstructure and the Dielectric Temperature Characteristics of Barium Titanate Ceramics. Journal of Materials Science, 44, 3751-3757.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10853-009-3502-z

[24]   Xiao, S.X. and Yan, X.P. (2009) Preparation and Characterization of Si-Doped Barium Titanate Nanopowders and Ceramics. Microelectronic Engineering, 86, 387-391.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mee.2008.11.042

[25]   Rath, M.K., Pradhan, G.K., Pandey, B., Verma, H.C., Roul, B.K. and Anand, S. (2008) Synthesis, Characterization and Dielectric Properties of Europium-Doped Barium Titanate Nanopowders. Materials Letters, 62, 2136-2139.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2007.11.033

[26]   Gulwade, D. and Gopalan, P. (2008) Diffuse Phase Transition in La and Ga Doped Barium Titanate. Solid State Communications, 146, 340-344.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssc.2008.02.018

[27]   Unruan, M., Sareein, T., Tangsritrakul, J., Prasetpalichatr, S., Ngamjarurojana, A., Anata, S. and Yimnirun, R. (2008) Changes in Dielectric and Ferroelectric Properties of Fe3+/Nb5+ Hybrid-Doped Barium Titanate Ceramics under Compressive Stress. Journal of Applied Physics, 104, Article ID: 124102.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3042228

[28]   Yaseen, H., Baltianski, S. and Tsur, Y. (2006) Effect of Incorporating Method of Niobium on the Properties of Doped Barium Titanate Ceramics. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 89, 1584-1589.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1551-2916.2006.00966.x

[29]   Cha, S.H. and Han, Y.H. (2006) Effects of Mn Doping on Dielectric Properties of Mg-Doped BaTiO3. Journal of Applied Physics, 100, Article ID: 104102.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2386924

[30]   Shen, Z.J., Chen, W.P., Qi, J.Q., Wang, Y., Chan, H.L.W., Chen, Y. and Jiang, X.P. (2009) Dielectric Properties of Barium Titanate Ceramics Modified by SiO2 and by BaO-SiO2. Physica B: Condensed Matter, 404, 2374-2376.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physb.2009.04.039

[31]   Kirianov, A., Hagiwara, T., Kishi, H. and Ohsato, H. (2002) Effect of Ho/Mg Ratio on Formation of Core-Shell Structure in BaTiO3 and on Dielectric Properties of BaTiO3 Ceramics. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 41, 6934-6937.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1143/JJAP.41.6934

[32]   Wang, S., Zhang, S.R., Zhou, X.H., Li, B. and Chen, Z. (2005) Effect of Sintering Atmospheres on the Microstructure and Dielectric Properties of Yb/Mg Co-Doped BaTiO3 Ceramics. Materials Letters, 59, 2457-2460.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2005.03.016

[33]   Rout, S.K., Sinha, E. and Panigrahi, S. (2007) Dielectric Properties and Diffuse Phase Transition in Ba1-xMgxTi0.6Zr0.4- O3 Solid Solutions. Materials Chemistry and Physics, 101, 428-432.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2006.08.002

[34]   Henning, D., Schnell, A. and Simon, G. (1982) Diffuse Ferroelectric Phase Transitions in Ba(Ti1-yZry)O3 Ceramics. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 65, 539-544.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1151-2916.1982.tb10778.x

[35]   Yu, Z., Guo, R. and Bhalla, A.S. (2000) Dielectric Behavior of Ba(Ti1-xZrx)O3 Single Crystals. Journal of Applied Physics, 88, 410.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.373674

 
 
Top