Growing a Kerr Black Hole

ABSTRACT

Growth of a black hole requires the participation of a near-by accretion disk if it is to occur at a significant rate. The Kerr solution of Einstein’s equation is a vacuum solution, but the center of a realistic Kerr black hole is not a vacuum, so the predicted disk singularity does not exist. Instead, the center of a black hole is occupied by an ultra-dense, spheroidal core whose diameter is greater than that of the theoretical disk singularity. The surface of a black hole’s core is continually bombarded by energetic particles from the external universe. Hence the cold remnant of a gravitationally-collapsed star that has often been assumed to be present at the center of a black hole must be replaced conceptually by a quark-gluon plasma whose temperature is of the order of 10^{12} K or more. The gravitational potential well of a black hole is extremely deep (TeV), but the number of discrete energy levels below the infinite-red-shift surface is finite. Information can be conveyed to observers in the external universe by thermally-excited fermions that escape from levels near the top of a black hole potential well.

Growth of a black hole requires the participation of a near-by accretion disk if it is to occur at a significant rate. The Kerr solution of Einstein’s equation is a vacuum solution, but the center of a realistic Kerr black hole is not a vacuum, so the predicted disk singularity does not exist. Instead, the center of a black hole is occupied by an ultra-dense, spheroidal core whose diameter is greater than that of the theoretical disk singularity. The surface of a black hole’s core is continually bombarded by energetic particles from the external universe. Hence the cold remnant of a gravitationally-collapsed star that has often been assumed to be present at the center of a black hole must be replaced conceptually by a quark-gluon plasma whose temperature is of the order of 10

KEYWORDS

Kerr Black Hole, No Singularity, Ultra-Dense Core, Deep (Teravolts) Potential Well, High-Energy Incoming Particles, Quark-Gluon Plasma, Information Flow through Event Horizon

Kerr Black Hole, No Singularity, Ultra-Dense Core, Deep (Teravolts) Potential Well, High-Energy Incoming Particles, Quark-Gluon Plasma, Information Flow through Event Horizon

Cite this paper

Phillips, L. (2015) Growing a Kerr Black Hole.*Journal of Modern Physics*, **6**, 1789-1792. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2015.613181.

Phillips, L. (2015) Growing a Kerr Black Hole.

References

[1] Ohanian, H.C. and Ruffini, R. (1976) Gravitation and Spacetime. 2nd Edition, W. W. Norton and Company, New York, 447, 498.

[2] Carroll, S.M. (2004) Spacetime and Geometry. Addison Wesley, San Francisco, 261, 417.

[3] Musiri, S. and Siopsis, G. (2004) On Quasi-Normal Modes of Kerr Black Holes. Physics Letters B, 579, 25-30.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2003.10.109

[4] Padmanabhan, T. (2010) Gravitation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 379.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511807787

[5] Ali, A.F., Das, S. and Vagenas, E.C. (2009) Discreteness of Space from the Generalized Uncertainty Principle. Physics Letters B, 678, 497-499.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2009.06.061

[6] Ali, A.F., Das, S. and Vagenas, E.C. (2010) The Generalized Uncertainty Principle and Quantum Gravity Phenomenology.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1001.2642

[7] Das, S., Vagenas, E.C. and Ali, A.F. (2010) Discreteness of Space from GUP II: Relativistic Wave Equations. Physics Letters B, 690, 407-412.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2010.05.052 http://arxiv.org/abs/1001.2642

[8] Phillips, L.F. (2015) Energy Levels of Neutrinos in a Gravitational Potential Well. Applied Physics Research, 7, No. 1, 19-24.

[9] Phillips, L.F. (2015) Black holes as a Source of High-Energy Neutrinos. Applied Physics Research, 7, No. 4, 1-3.

[10] Csanad, M. and Majer, I. (2011) Equation of State and Initial Temperature of Quark-Gluon Plasma at RHIC.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1101.1279

[11] Aartsen, M.G., et al. (2013) First Observation of PeV-Energy Neutrinos with IceCube. Physical Review Letters, 111, Article ID: 0221103/1-021103/7. (The IceCube Collaboration)

[12] Loeb, A. (2004) The Environmental Impact of Supermassive Black Holes.

http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0408166

[13] Hopkins, P.F., Murray, N. and Thompson, T.A. (2009) The Small Scatter in BH-Host Correlations and the Case for Self-Regulated BH Growth.

http://arxiv.org/pdf/0903.3949.pdf

[1] Ohanian, H.C. and Ruffini, R. (1976) Gravitation and Spacetime. 2nd Edition, W. W. Norton and Company, New York, 447, 498.

[2] Carroll, S.M. (2004) Spacetime and Geometry. Addison Wesley, San Francisco, 261, 417.

[3] Musiri, S. and Siopsis, G. (2004) On Quasi-Normal Modes of Kerr Black Holes. Physics Letters B, 579, 25-30.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2003.10.109

[4] Padmanabhan, T. (2010) Gravitation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 379.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511807787

[5] Ali, A.F., Das, S. and Vagenas, E.C. (2009) Discreteness of Space from the Generalized Uncertainty Principle. Physics Letters B, 678, 497-499.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2009.06.061

[6] Ali, A.F., Das, S. and Vagenas, E.C. (2010) The Generalized Uncertainty Principle and Quantum Gravity Phenomenology.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1001.2642

[7] Das, S., Vagenas, E.C. and Ali, A.F. (2010) Discreteness of Space from GUP II: Relativistic Wave Equations. Physics Letters B, 690, 407-412.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2010.05.052 http://arxiv.org/abs/1001.2642

[8] Phillips, L.F. (2015) Energy Levels of Neutrinos in a Gravitational Potential Well. Applied Physics Research, 7, No. 1, 19-24.

[9] Phillips, L.F. (2015) Black holes as a Source of High-Energy Neutrinos. Applied Physics Research, 7, No. 4, 1-3.

[10] Csanad, M. and Majer, I. (2011) Equation of State and Initial Temperature of Quark-Gluon Plasma at RHIC.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1101.1279

[11] Aartsen, M.G., et al. (2013) First Observation of PeV-Energy Neutrinos with IceCube. Physical Review Letters, 111, Article ID: 0221103/1-021103/7. (The IceCube Collaboration)

[12] Loeb, A. (2004) The Environmental Impact of Supermassive Black Holes.

http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0408166

[13] Hopkins, P.F., Murray, N. and Thompson, T.A. (2009) The Small Scatter in BH-Host Correlations and the Case for Self-Regulated BH Growth.

http://arxiv.org/pdf/0903.3949.pdf