Baumol, W.J., Panzar, J.C. and Willig, R.D. (1982) Contestable Markets and the Theory of Industry Structure. Marcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York.
 Breneman, D.W. (1976) The Ph.D. Production Process. In: Froomkin, J.T., Jamison, D.T. and Radner, R., Eds., Education as an Industry, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, 1-52.
 Cohn, E., Rhine, S.L.W. and Santos, M.C. (1989) Institutions of Higher Education as Multiproduct Firms: Economies of Scale and Scope. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 71, 284-290. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1926974
 Del Rey, E. (2001) Teaching versus Research: A Model of State University Competition. Journal of Urban Economics, 49, 356-373. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/juec.2000.2193
 James, E. (1990) Decision Process and Priorities in Higher Education. In: Hoenack, S.A. and Collins, E.L., Eds., The Economics of American Universities: Management, Operations, and Fiscal Environment, State University of New York Press, Buffalo, 77-106.
 Massy, W.F. (1996) Productivity Issues in Higher Education. In: Massy, W.F., Ed., Resource Allocation in Higher Education, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 49-86.
 Melguizo, T. and Strober, M.H. (2007) Faculty Salaries and the Maximization of Prestige. Research in Higher Education, 48, 633-668. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11162-006-9045-0
 Brewer, D.J., Gates, S.M. and Goldman, C.A. (2001) In Pursuit of Prestige: Strategy and Competition in U.S. Higher Education. Rutgers Transaction Publishers, Piscataway.
 Cyrenne, P. and Grant, H. (2009) University Decision Making and Prestige: An Empirical Study. Economics of Education Review, 28, 237-248. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2008.06.001
 Johnson, W.R. and Turner, S. (2009) Faculty without Students: Resource Allocation in Higher Education. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 23, 169-189. http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/jep.23.2.169
 Frank, R.G. and Salkever, D.S. (1991) The Supply of Charity Services by Nonprofit Hospitals: Motives and Market Structure. RAND Journal of Economics, 22, 430-445. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2601057
 Horwitz, J.R. and Nichols, A. (2009) Hospital Ownership and Medical Services: Market Mix, Spillover Effects, and Nonprofit Objectives. Journal of Health Economics, 28, 924-937. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhealeco.2009.06.008
 Newhouse, J. (1970) Towards a Theory of Nonprofit Institutions: An Economic Model of a Hospital. American Economic Review, 60, 64-74.
 Abe, Y. and Watanabe, S.P. (2012) Academic Crossover and Functional Differentiation of Universities. Theoretical Economics Letters, 2, 337-340. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/tel.2012.23061