JSS  Vol.3 No.10 , October 2015
Work Capacity of the Elderly: Assuming An-other Social Identity in the Contemporary World
ABSTRACT
This is a theoretical study on the work capacity of elderly people based on the Social Identity Theory—SIT. In that perspective, work capacity can be considered as the result of a dynamic process. It refers to the worker’s skills to execute professional activities according to the job requirements and his/her health condition. The SIT aims to highlight the existing impact on people’s behavior when they find themselves members of social categories and, therefore, it involves the operation of three psychological processes, which are: social categorization, social identification and social comparison. Thus, one can assume that society characterizes the elderly people as belonging to the retired group, and from a capitalist perspective, considers these people as unproductive. Their identity is linked to workers who are active in the job market; in addition, the chronological determinant of age does not impede elderly people from continuing in the job market. When elderly people are considered capable of developing their activities, whether professionally or not, and start to play new social roles, the start of the transformation in the conception of old age is perceived. In view of this panorama, a Conceptual Theoretical base is proposed, aiming to locate the phenomenon “work capacity” inside the aging process as this capacity is centered on the advanced activities of daily living.

Cite this paper
Ribeiro, J. , Santos, R. , Junior, D. , Pereira, D. , Silva, J. and Mendes, M. (2015) Work Capacity of the Elderly: Assuming An-other Social Identity in the Contemporary World. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 3, 24-32. doi: 10.4236/jss.2015.310004.
References
[1]   Lebrao, M. L. (2007) O envelhecimento no Brasil: aspectos da transicao demográfica e epidemiológica.
Saúde Coletiva, 4, 135-140. >https://www.nescon.medicina.ufmg.br/biblioteca/imagem/2559.pdf

[2]   Wong, L.L.R. and Carvalho, J.A.M. (2006) The Rapid Process of Aging in Brazil: Serious Challenges for Public Policies. Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, 23, 5-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-
30982006000100002


[3]   Andrade, C.B. and Monteiro, M.I. (2007) Aging and Work Ability of Workers of a University Hospital’s
Cleaning and Hygiene Service. Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP, 41, 237-244.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0080-62342007000200009

[4]   Martinez, M.C., Latorre, M.R.D.O. and Fischer, F.M. (2010) Work Ability: A Literature Review.
Ciência e Saúde Coletiva, 15, S1553-S1561. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-81232010000700067

[5]   Silva, L.G., Haddad, M.C.L., Domansky, R.C. and Vituri, D.W. (2010) Work Ability among Cleaning and
Hygiene’s Workers of a Public University Hospital. Rev. Eletr. Enf., 12, 158-163.

[6]   Martinez, M.C. and Latorre, M.R.D.O. (2006) Health and Work Ability among Office Workers.
Revista de Saúde Pública, 40, 851-858. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-89102006000600015

[7]   Tuomi, K., Ilmarinen, J., Jahkola, A., Katajarinne, L. and Tulkki, A. (2005) índice de capacidade para o trabalho. Traduzido por Frida Marina Fischer. EdUFSCar, Sao Carlos.

[8]   Schneider, R.H. and Irigaray, T.Q. (2008) The Process of Aging in Today’s World: Chronological, Biological,
Psychological and Social Aspects. Estudos de Psicologia (Campinas), 25, 585-593.

[9]   Almeida, T. and Lourenco, M.L. (2009) Reflexoes: Conceitos, estereótipos e mitos acerca da velhice.
Revista Brasileira de Ciências do Envelhecimento Humano (RBCEH), 6, 233-244. http://dx.doi.org/
10.5335/rbceh.2009.022 http://www.upf.br/seer/index.php/rbceh/article/view/171


[10]   Alcantara, A.O. (2009) Velhos institucionalizados e família: entre abafos e desabafos. Editora Alínea
(Colecao velhice e sociedade), Campinas.

[11]   Giaqueto, A. and Soares, N. (2010) O trabalho e o trabalhador idoso. Anais do VII Seminário de Saúde do
Trabalhador e V Seminário O Trabalho em Debate “Saúde Mental Relacionada ao Trabalho”, Franca.
http://www.proceedings.scielo.br/pdf/sst/n7/a07.pdf

[12]   Scortegagna, P.A. and Oliveira, R.C.S. (2012) Idoso: Um novo ator social. Anais do IX Seminário de
Pesquisa em Educacao da Regiao Sul, Caxias do Sul. http://www.ucs.br/etc/conferencias/index.php
/anpedsul/9anpedsul/paper/viewFile/1886/73


[13]   Fischer, F.M. (2005) Breve histórico desta traducao. In: Tuomi, K., Ilmarinen, J., Jahkola, A., Katajarinne,
L. and Tulkki, A., Org., índice de capacidade para o trabalho, EduFSCar, Sao Carlos.

[14]   Ilmarinen, J.E. (2001) Aging Workers. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 58, 546-551.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oem.58.8.546

[15]   Sampaio, R.F. and Augusto, V.G. (2012) Aging and Work: A Challenge for the Rehabilitation Schedule.
Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy, 16, 94-101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-35552012000200003

[16]   Amorim, J.S.C., Salla, S. and Trelha, C.S. (2014) Factors Associated with Work Ability in the Elderly:
Systematic Review. Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, 17, 830-841.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1809-4503201400040003

[17]   Strijk, J.E., Proper, K.I., Van der Beek, A.J. and Van Mechelen, W. (2009) The Vital@Work Study. The
Systematic Development of a Lifestyle Intervention to Improve Older Worker’s Vitality and the Design of a
Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating This Intervention. BMC Public Health, 9, 408.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-9-408

[18]   Veras, R.P. (2009) Population Aging Today: Demands, Challenges and Innovations. Revista de Saúde
Pública, 43, 548-554. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-89102009000300020

[19]   Mendes, M.R.S.S.B., Gusmao, J.L., Mancussi e Faro, A.C. and Leite, R.C.B.O. (2005) The Social Situation
of Elderly in Brazil: A Brief Consideration. Acta Paulista de Enfermagem, 18, 422-426.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-21002005000400011

[20]   Ilmarinen, J.E. and Rantanen, J. (1999) Promotion of Work Ability during Ageing. American
Journal of Industrial Medicine, 36, S21-S23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1097-
0274(199909)36:1+<21::aid-ajim8>3.0.co;2-s


[21]   Padula, R.S., Comper, M.L., Moraes, S.A., Sabbagh, C., Pagliato, W.J. and Perracini, M.R. (2013) The Work
Ability Index and Functional Capacity among Older Workers. Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy,
17, 382-391. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-35552013005000107

[22]   Tuomi, K., Ilmarinen, J., Klockars, M., Nygard, C.H., Seitsamo, J., Huuhtanen, P., et al. (1997)
Finnish Research Project on Aging Workers in 1981-1992. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment &
Health, 23, S7-S11. http://www.sjweh.fi/show_abstract.php?abstract_id=207

[23]   Ilmarinen, J.E. (2012) Promoting Active Ageing in the Workplace. European Agency for
Safety and Health at Work, Espanha. https://osha.europa.eu/pt/priority_groups/ageingworkers

[24]   Ribeiro, J.H.M. (2014) Capacidade para o trabalho da pessoa idosa: Caracterizando uma outra
identidade social. Dissertacao de Mestrado, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas.
https://bdtd.unifal-mg.edu.br:8443/handle/tede/324

[25]   European Agency for Safety and Health at Work-EU-OSHA (2015) Adapting Work and the Work
Environment. Espanha. https://osha.europa.eu/pt/priority_groups/ageingworkers

[26]   Buss, P.M. (2005) Health Promotion and Quality of Life. Ciência & Saúde Coletiva, 5, 163-177.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-81232000000100014

[27]   Guimaraes, L.H.C.T., Galdino, D.C.A., Martins, F.L.M., Abreu, S.R., Lima, M. and Vitorino, D.F.M. (2004)
Functional Capacity Assessment in Elderly on Physiotherapy. Revista Neurociências, 12, 130-133.
http://www.revistaneurociencias.com.br/edicoes/2004/RN%2012%2003/Pages%20from%20RN%
2012%2003-3.pdf


[28]   Hogg, M.A. and Abrams, D. (1988) Social Identifications—A Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations and
Group Processes. Biddle, Guildford. https://books.google.com.br/books/about/Social_identification
s.html?id=M1m8RmoippEC&redir_esc=y

[29]   Tajfel, H. and Turner, J.C. (1986) The Social Identity Theory of Intergroup Behavior. In: Worchel, S. and Austin, W.G., Eds., Psychology of Intergroup Relation, Hall Publishers, Chicago, 7-24.

[30]   Hogg, M.A. (2006) Social Identity Theory. In: Burke, P.J., Ed., Contemporary Social Psychological Theories,
Stanford University Press, Redwood City. http://books.google.com.br/books?
id=8Jzkgbq2vYwC&printsec=frontcover&hl=pt-BR#v=onepage&q&f=false


[31]   Prette, A.D. and Prette, Z.P.D. (2003) Assertividade, Sistema de crencas e identidade social.
Psicologia em Revista, 9, 125-136. http://www.pucminas.br/imagedb/documento/DOC_DSC_NOME_
ARQUI20041214095307.pdf


[32]   Hornsey, M.J. (2008) Social Identify Theory and Self-Categorization Theory: A Historical Review. Social
and Personality Psychology Compass, 2, 204-222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9004.2007.00066.x

[33]   Tajfel, H. (1981) Human Groups and Social Categories. Cambridge University Press, New
York. http://books.google.com.br/books?id=ldA8AAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&hl=pt-
BR#v=onepage&q&f=false


[34]   Turner, J.C. and Reynolds, K.J. (2003) The Social Identity Perspective in Intergroup Relations: Theories,
Themes and Controversies. In: Brown, R. and Gaertner, S., Eds., Blackwell
Handbook of Social Psychology: Intergroup Processes, Blackwell Publishers, Oxford, 133-152.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470693421.ch7

[35]   Galiinkin, A.L. and Zauli, A. (2011) Identidade social e alteridade. In: Torres, C.V. and Neiva, E.R., Org.,
Psicologia social: Principais temas e vertentes, Artmed, Porto Alegre. http://books.google.com.br/books?id=H-
nQ_Z5LHYEC&pg=PA27&dq=.+Psicologia+social:+principais+temas+e+vertentes&hl=pt-BR&sa=X&ei=2WfiU8r5O5XLsQTYkoLYBQ&ved=0CCYQ6AEwAA#v=
onepage&q=.%20Psicologia%20social%3A%20principais%20temas%20e%20vertentes&f=false


[36]   Trepte, S. (2006) Social Identity Theory. In: Bryant, J. and Vorderer, P., Eds., Psychology of Entertainment,
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, Mahwah. http://books.google.com.br/books?
id=AVnhAQAAQBAJ&pg=PA271&dq=TREPTE,+S.+Social+Identity+Theory&hl=pt-BR&sa=X&ei=OhLxU7i5HYjksASwmoHICA&ved=0CB0Q6AEwAA#v=
onepage&q=TREPTE%2C%20S.%20Social%20Identity%20Theory&f=false


[37]   Galvao, A.C. (2009) Os muros (in) visíveis do preconceito: Um estudo das representacoes sociais das
pessoas que vivem com HIV/aids. Dissertacao de Mestrado, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília.
http://repositorio.unb.br/handle/10482/7139

[38]   Lasch, C. (1983) A cultura do narcisismo—A vida americana numa era de esperancas em declínios.
Rio de Janeiro.

[39]   Rodrigues, L.S. and Soares, G.A. (2006) Velho, idoso e terceira idade na sociedade contemporanea.
Revista ágora, No. 4, 1-29. http://periodicos.ufes.br/agora/article/view/1901/1413

[40]   Silva, L.R.F. (2009) Autonomy, Imperative to Activity and “Mask of Age”: Prerogatives of Contemporary Aging?>Psicologia & Sociedade, 21, 128-134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-71822009000100015

[41]   Almeida, S.T. (2004) Changes of the Bodily Perceptions and of the Aging Process in the Elderly
Individual Belonging to the Reviver Group. RBCEH, 1, 86-98. http://www.upf.br/seer/index.php/rbceh/
article/viewFile/48/40


[42]   Silva, L.R.F. (2008) Third Age: New Identity, Reformulation of the Old Age or Generational Experience?
Physis: Revista de Saúde Coletiva, 18, 801-815. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-73312008000400011

[43]   Sennett, R. (2002) A Corrosao do Caráter. Record, Rio de Janeiro.

[44]   Camarano, A.A. and Pasinato, M.T. (2004) O envelhecimento populacional na agenda das políticas públicas. Os novos idosos brasileiros: Muito além dos 60 anos. IPEA, Rio de Janeiro.

[45]   Lima, P.M.R. and Coelho, V.L.D. (2011) The Art of Aging: An Exploratory Study on Life History and Aging.
Psico- logia: Ciência e Profissao, 31, 4-19.

[46]   Moraes, E.N. (2012) Atencao à saúde do idoso: Aspectos conceituais. Organizacao Pan-Americana da
Saúde, Brasília. http://apsredes.org/site2012/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Saude-do-Idoso-WEB1.pdf

[47]   ávila, A.H., Guerra, M. and Rangel Meneses, M.P. (2007) Se o velho é o outro, quem sou eu? A construcao
da auto- imagem na velhice. Pensamiento Psicológico, 3, 7-18. http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.
oa?id=80130802


[48]   Canizares, J.C.L. and Jacob Filho, W. (2011) Senility Risk Factors upon Retirement Transition. Revista
Brasileira de Geriatria e Gerontologia, 14, 425-432. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1809-98232011000300003

[49]   Magalhaes, M.O., Krieger, D.V., Vivian, A.G., Straliotto, M.C.S. and Poeta, M.P. (2004) Patterns of Retirement Adjustment. Aletheia, 19, 57-68.
http://pepsic.bvsalud.org/scielo.php?pid=S1413-03942004000100006&script=sci_arttext

[50]   Ramos, L.R. (2003) Determinant Factors for Healthy Aging among Senior Citizens in a Large City:
The Epidoso Project in Sao Paulo. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 19, 739-798.

[51]   Kenny, G.P., Yardley, J.E., Martineau, L. and Jay, O. (2008) Physical Work Capacity in Older Adults:
Implications for the Aging Worker. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 51, 610-625.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajim.20600

[52]   Chan, G., Tan, V. and Koh, D. (2000) Ageing and Fitness to Work. Occupational Medicine, 50, 483-491.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/occmed/50.7.483

[53]   Martinez, M.C. and Latorre, M.R.D.O. (2008) Health and Work Ability of Workers of the Electricity Sector
in Sao Paulo. Ciência & Saúde Coletiva, 13, 1061-1073.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-81232008000300029

 
 
Top