Health  Vol.7 No.10 , October 2015
Developing the Participatory Education Program for Dengue Prevention and Control in the Primary School, Southern Region, Thailand
Abstract: Dengue disease had been the significant health problem of the primary school in southern Thailand. The objective was to develop the participatory program for dengue prevention and control in five primary schools. Participatory action research (PAR) was applied in five steps: 1) preparation, 2) assessment, 3) education program development, 4) implementation and 5) evaluation. Data collection used quantitative and qualitative methods in five primary schools in Southern, Thailand. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square (χ2) test were used to compare between pre- and post-intervention. Larval Indices were obtained from ratio analysis. The results showed the participatory program consisted of nine important activities for all stakeholders involving dengue problem. Health teacher’s activities and student’s activities were eight activities consisted of knowledge training, dengue manual, Computer Assisted Instructor (CAI), test, dengue data, larval indices survey, fish bank, and herbal garden. The seven activities of health provider were knowledge training, dengue manual, CAI, testing, dengue data, larval indices survey, and larval indices program. Three activities for students’ parents included dengue manual, dengue data, and larval indices survey. The 290 students were participating activities in education program and increasing basic knowledge of dengue prevention and control. Comparing the number of correct answers, >80% of students between pre- and post-intervention were found to increase basic knowledge from five correct answers to ten, and of these six items were significantly different (P < 0.001). The two primary schools were continuing non-positive containers (Container Index: CI = 0), but the total larval indices (Breteau Index: BI, House Index: HI, and Container Index: CI) of five primary schools showed high levels both pre- and post-intervention in primary schools; whereas, the students’ households showed high level of BI, HI and CI both pre- and post-intervention (754, 77, and 35 to 616, 81, and 32). Conclusion: The program was needed to continue in primary school and participate from health teacher, health provider, and students’ parents in order to be of great benefit for students.
Cite this paper: Suwanbamrung, C. , Kusol, K. , Tantraseneerate, K. , Promsupa, S. , Doungsin, T. , Thongchan, S. and Laupsa, M. (2015) Developing the Participatory Education Program for Dengue Prevention and Control in the Primary School, Southern Region, Thailand. Health, 7, 1255-1267. doi: 10.4236/health.2015.710140.

[1]   Guzman, M.G., Halstead, S.B., Artsob, H., Buchy, P., Farrar, J, Gubler, D.J., Hunsperger, E., et al. (2010) Dengue: A Continuing Global Threat. Microbiology, S7-S16.

[2]   Thai Ministry of Public Health (2011) Reported Dengue Fever and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Situation.

[3]   Promprou, S., Jaroensutasinee, M. and Jaroensutasinee, K. (2005) Climatic Factors Affecting Dengue Heamorrhagic Fever Incidence in Southern Thailand. Dengue Bulletin, 29, 41-48.

[4]   Arunachalam, N., Tana, S., Espino, F., Kittayapong, P., Abeyewickreme, W., Wai, K.T., et al. (2010) Eco-Bio-Social Determinants of Dengue Vectoe Breeding: A Multicounty Study in Urban and Periurban Asia. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation, 88, 173-184.

[5]   Constantinnus, J.M.K., et al. (2006) Dengue Knowladge and Practices and Their Impact on Aedes aegypti Populations in Kamphaeng Phat, Thailand. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 74, 693-700.

[6]   Spiegel, J.M., Bonet, M., Ibarra, A.-M., Pagliccia, N., Ouellette, V. and Yassi, A. (2007) Social and Environmental Determinants of Aedes aegypti Infestation in Central Havana: Results of a Case-Control Study Nested in an Intergrated Dengue Surveillance Programe in Cuba. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 12, 503-510.

[7]   Kittayapong, P, Chansang, U., Chansang, C. and Bhumiratana, A. (2006) Community Participation and Appropriate Technologies for Dengue Vector Control at Tranmission Foci in Thailand. Journal American Mosqito Control Association, 22, 538-546.[538:CPAATF]2.0.CO;2

[8]   Al-Muhandis, N and Hunter, P.R. (2011) The Value of Educational Massages Embedded in a Community-Based Approach to Dengue Fever: A Systematic Review and Meta Regression Analysis. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 5, 1-9.

[9]   Focks, D.A. (2004) A Review of Entomological Sampling Methods and Indicates for Dengue Vectors. WHO (WHO/ TDR/IDRDen.03.1), Geneva.

[10]   Winch, P.J., Leontsini, E., Rigau-Pérez, J.G., Ruiz-Pérez, M., Clark, G.G. and Gubler, D.J. (2002) Community-Based Dengue Prevention Programes in Puerto Rico: Impact on Knowledge, Behavior, and Residential Mosquito Infestation. The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 67, 363-370.

[11]   Srisawad, T., et al. (2008) The Effectiveness of Aedes aegypti Laral Control and DHF Incidence in Pre-Epidemic Period. Vector Borne Disease Journal, 5, 14-23.

[12]   Khun, S. and Manderson, L. (2007) Community and School-Based Health Education for Dengue Dontrol in Rural Cambudia: A Process Evaluation. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 1, 1-10.

[13]   LaBeaud, A.D., Glinka, A., Kippes, C. and King, C.H. (2009) School-Based Health Promotion for Mosquito-Borne Disease Prevention. The Journal of Pediatrics, 155, 590-592.

[14]   Suwanbamrung, C., Tapalak, N., Jitchun, C., Promsuwan, C., Prosupa, S., Muenraj, Y. and Dumpan, A. (2012) Student Capacity Building of Dengue Prevention and Control: A Study of an Islamic School, Southern Thailand. Health, 4, 366-379.

[15]   Avila Montes, G.A., Martínez, M., Sherman, C. and Fernández Cerna, E. (2004) Evaluation of an Educational Module on Dengue and Aedes aegypti for Schoolchildren in Honduras. The Pan American Journal of Public Health, 16, 84-94.

[16]   Lennon, J. (2004) Students’ Perceptions about Mosquito Laval Control in a Dengue-Endemic Philippine City. Dengue Bulletin, 28, 196-206.

[17]   Madeira, N.G., Macharelli, C.A., Pedras, J.F. and Delfino, M.C.N. (2002) Education in Primary School as a Strategy to Control Dengue. Evista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicine Tropical, 35, 221-226.

[18]   Tampon Yan Sou District Health Promotion (2012) Dengue/Dengue Heamorrhagic Fever Statistic. Kumpeang Sou District Nakhon Si Thammarat Province.

[19]   Suwanbamrung, C., Dumpan, A., Thammapalo, S., Sumrongtong, R. and Phedkeang, P. (2011) A Model of Community Capacity Building for Sustainable Dengue Problem Solution in Southern Thailand. Health, 3, 584-601.

[20]   Suwanbamrung, C., Promsupa, S., Doungsin, T. and Tongjan, S. (2013) Risk Factors Related to Student Dengue Problems in Primary School: Exploring Dengue’s Basic Knowledge and Larval Indices. Southern Thailand. Journal of Infection and Public Health, 6, 347-357.

[21]   Gibbon, M.R., Labonte, R. and Laverack, G. (2002) Evaluation Community Capacity. Health and Social Care in the Community, 10, 485-491.

[22]   Toledo, M.E., Vanlerberghe, V., Perez, D., Lefevre, P., Ceballos, E., Bandera, D., Gil, A.B. and Van der Stuyft, P. (2007) Achieving Sustainability of Community-Based Dengue Control in Santiago de Cuba. Social Science & Medicine, 64, 976-988.

[23]   WHO (1999) Prevention and Control of Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever: Comprehensive Guidelines. WHO Regional Publication, New Delhi, SEARO No. 29.

[24]   WHO(1993) Monograph on Dengue/Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever. Regional Office for South-East Asia, New Delhi.

[25]   Suwanbamrung, C. (2012) Children’s Basic Knowledge and Activities for Dengue Problem Solution: An Islamic Religious School, Southern, Thailand. Asia Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, 2, 456-464.

[26]   Thammapalo, S., Nagao, Y., Sakamoto, W., Saengtharatip, S., Tsujitani, M., Nakamura, Y., Coleman, P.G. and Davies, C. (2008) Relationship betaween Transamission Indensity and Incidence of Dengue Heamorrhagic Fever in Thailand. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2, 1-13.

[27]   Chareonviyaphap, T., et al. (2003) Laval Habitants and Distribution Paterns of Aedes Aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedes Alopictus, in Thailand. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 34, 7.

[28]   Bar, A. and Andrew, J. (2012) Seasonal Prevalence of Aedes aegypti Larval in Agra. Research in Zoology, 2, 4.

[29]   Torres, J.R. and Castro, J. (2007) The Health and Economic Impact of Dengue in Latin America. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 23, S23-S31.

[30]   P’erez-Guerre, C.L., Zielinski-Gutierrez, E., Vargas-Torres, D. and Clark, G.G. (2009) Community Belivefs and Practices about Dengue in Puerto Rico. Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública/The Pan American Journal of Public Health, 25, 9.

[31]   Sanchez, L., Cortinas, J., Pelaez, O., Gutierrez, H., Concepción, D. and Van der Stuyft, P. (2010) Breteau Index Threshold Levels Indicating Risk for Dengue Tranmission in Areas with Low Aedes Infestion. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 15, 3.

[32]   Sanchez, L., Vanlerberghe, V., Alfonso, L., del Carmen Marquetti, M., Guzman, M.G., Bisset, J. and van der Stuyft, P. (2006) Aedes aegypti Larval Indicies and Risk for Dengue Epidemics. Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, 12, 800- 806.

[33]   Erlanger, T.E., Keiser, J. and Utzinger, J. (2008) Effect of Dengue Vector Control Interventions on Entomological Parameters in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review and Metalysis. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 22, 203-221.