SCD  Vol.5 No.4 , October 2015
The Use of Human Amniotic Membrane for Cartilage Repair: A Sheep Study
ABSTRACT
Studies show that human amniotic cells’ pluripotentency can be influenced to produce chondrocytes and osteocytes through adding demineralized bone (DMB). Objective: This study evaluates the human amniotic membrane (HAM) mixed with DMB to fill defects in sheep models. We hypothesized this membrane would fill these defects with hyaline-like cartilage with chondrocytes populating the matrix. Design: Six adult sheep were used in this study. One hindquarter knee of each sheep was utilized to make two cartilage defects: one on the femoral condyle and one in the trochlear grove. Three control sheep had unfilled defects. Three sheep received HAM/DMB from a placenta to fill the defects. The membrane was folded so the cellular layer faced the defect and the joint while demineralized bone was placed between the layers. The membranes were fixed to the femur and to the trochlear grove. At six months, the sheep were sacrificed for evaluation. Results: Of the controls, defects did not fill with hyaline or fibrocartilage. In HAM/DMB sheep, 50% of the defects retained the membrane, consistent with other animal models. Membrane defects were examined histologically by a validated scoring system. A strong correlation of little statistical difference between the test and the normal cartilages was observed. The defects that retained membranes had evidence of diffuse chondrocyte-like cell proliferation of stromal matrix similar to hyaline cartilage. Conclusions: HAM/DMB is a potential source of pluripotent cells that can influence chondrogenesis in defects in sheep models. The implications for application in a human model are promising and warrant further study.

Cite this paper
Tabet, S. , Conner, D. and Guebert, D. (2015) The Use of Human Amniotic Membrane for Cartilage Repair: A Sheep Study. Stem Cell Discovery, 5, 40-47. doi: 10.4236/scd.2015.54005.
References
[1]   Boo, L., Sofiah, S., Selvaratnam, L., Tai, C., Pingguan-Murphy, B. and Kamarul, T. (2009) A Preliminary Study of Human Amniotic Membrane as a Potential Chondrocyte Carrier. Malaysian Orthopaedic Journal, 3, 16-23.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5704/MOJ.0911.004

[2]   Akle, C.A., Adinolfi, M., Welsh, K.I., Leibowitz, S. and McColl, I. (1981) Immunogenicity of Human Amniotic Epithelial Cells after Transplantation into Volunteers. The Lancet, 318, 1003-1005.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(81)91212-5

[3]   He, H., Li, W., Tseng, D., Zhang, S., Chen, S., Day, A. and Tseng, S. (2009) Biochemical Characterization and Function of Complexes Formed by Hyaluronan and the Heavy Chains of Inter-α-inhibitor (HC-HA) Purified from Extracts of Human Amniotic Membrane. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 284, 20136-20146.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M109.021881

[4]   Marongiu, F., Gramignoli, R., Sun, Q., Tahan, V., Miki, T., Dorko, K., Ellis, E. and Strom, S.C. (2010) Isolation of Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology, 12, 1E5.1-1E5.11.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470151808.sc01e05s12

[5]   Jin, C.Z., Park, S.R., Choi, B.H., Lee, K., Kang, C.K. and Min, B.H. (2007) Human Amniotic Membrane as a Delivery Matric for Articular Repair. Tissue Engineering, 14, 693-702.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ten.2006.0184

[6]   Zhou, S., Yates, K.E., Eid, K. and Glowacki, J. (2005) Demineralized Bone Promotes Chondrocyte or Osteoblast Differentiation of Human Marrow Stromal Cells Cultured in Collagen Sponges. Cell and Tissue Banking, 6, 33-44.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10561-005-4253-y

[7]   Kanthan, S.R., Ganesan, K., Azura, M. and Kamarul, T. (2010) The Different Preparations of Human Amniotic Membrane (HAM) as a Potential Cell Carrier for Condrocytes. European Cells and Materials, 20, 46.

[8]   Steigman, S.A. and Fauza, D.O. (2007) Isolation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Amniotic Fluid and Placenta. Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology, 1E.2.1-1E.2.12.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470151808.sc01e02s1

[9]   Lindenmair, A., Wolbank, S., Stadler, G., Meinl, A., Peterbauer-Scherb, A., Eibl, J., Polin, H., Gabriel, C., Van Griensven, M. and Redl, H. (2010) Osteogenic Differentiation of Intact Human Amniotic Membrane. Biomaterials, 31, 8659-8665.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2010.07.090

[10]   O’Driscoll, S.W., Marx, R.G., Beaton, D.E., Miura, Y., Gallay, S.H. and Fitzsimmons, S.H. (2002) Validation of a Simple Histological-Histochemical Cartilage Scoring System. Tissue Engineering, 7, 313-320.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/10763270152044170

[11]   Moojen, D.J.F., Saris, D.B.F., Yang, K.G., Dhert, W.J.A. and Verbout, A.J. (2002) The Correlation and Reproducibility of Histological Scoring Systems in Cartilage Repair. Tissue Engineering, 8, 627-634.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/107632702760240544

[12]   Grogan, S.P., Barbero, A., Winkelmann, V., Fitzsimmons, J., O’Driscoll, S., Martin, I. and Mainil-Varlet, P. (2006) Visual Histological Grading System for the Evaluation of in Vitro-Generated Neocartilage. Tissue Engineering, 12, 2141-2149.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ten.2006.12.2141

[13]   (2012) SAS 9.3. SAS Institute Inc., Cary.
www.sas.com

[14]   (2012) STATA/SE 12.1. Statacorp LP, College Station.
www.stata.com

 
 
Top