JBBS  Vol.5 No.10 , September 2015
The Effect of Handedness on Supplementary Motor Area Activation during Complex Motor Tasks
Abstract: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to assess the activity of supplementary motor area (SMA) in six right-handed and six left-handed healthy volunteers. Two manual tasks (self-initiated previously practiced and unpredictable visually guided) were used. Quantitative analysis of hemispheric and bilateral SMA activation was described as mean ± standard deviation of hot spots/total spots. The two tasks induced bilateral SMA activation. The laterality of SMA activation was affected by manual dominance. Left SMA was significantly more activated in right- and left-handers while performing the motor tasks with the right hand. Right SMA was more activated in the left-handers when the left hand was used. Task complexity was the most important factor influencing the degree of SMA activation.
Cite this paper: Dalla-Corte, A. , das Neves, C. , Anés, M. , Portuguez, M. and Dacosta, J. (2015) The Effect of Handedness on Supplementary Motor Area Activation during Complex Motor Tasks. Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, 5, 458-469. doi: 10.4236/jbbs.2015.510044.

[1]   Kim, S.G., Ashe, J., Hendrich, K., Ellermann, J.M., Merkle, H., Ugurbil, K., et al. (1993) Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Motor Cortex: Hemispheric Asymmetry and Handedness. Science, 261, 615-617.

[2]   Rao, S.M., Binder, J.R., Bandettini, P.A., Hammeke, T.A., Yetkin, F.Z., Jesmanowicz, A., et al. (1993) Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Complex Human Movements. Neurology, 43, 2311-2318.

[3]   Shibasaki, H., Sadato, N., Lyshkow, H., Yonekura, Y., Honda, M., Nagamine, T., et al. (1993) Both Primary Motor Cortex and Supplementary Motor Area Play an Important Role in Complex Finger Movement. Brain, 116, 1387-1398.

[4]   Chung, G.H., Han, Y.M. and Kim, C.S. (2000) Functional MRI of the Supplementary Motor Area: Comparison of Motor and Sensory Tasks. Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, 24, 521-525.

[5]   Goldberg, G. (1985) Supplementary Motor Area Structure and Function: Review and Hypothesis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 8, 567-616.

[6]   Mushiake, H., Inase, M. and Tanji, J. (1991) Neuronal Activity in the Primate Premotor, Supplementary, and Precentral Motor Cortex during Visually Guided and Internally Determined Sequential Movements. Journal of Neurophysiology, 66, 705-718.

[7]   Passingham, R.E., Thaler, D.E. and Chen, Y.C. (1989) Supplementary Motor Cortex and Self-Initiated Movement. Karger, Basel.

[8]   Roland, P.E., Larsen, B., Lassen, N.A. and Skinhoj, E. (1980) Supplementary Motor Area and Other Cortical Areas in Organization of Voluntary Movements in Man. Journal of Neurophysiology, 43, 118-136.

[9]   Cunnington, R., Bradshaw, J.L. and Iansek, R. (1996) The Role of the Supplementary Motor Area in the Control of Voluntary Movement. Human Movement Science, 15, 627-647.

[10]   Dum, R.P. and Strick, P.L. (1991) The Origin of Corticospinal Projections from the Premotor Areas in the Frontal Lobe. Journal of Neuroscience, 11, 667-689.

[11]   He, S.Q., Dum, R.P. and Strick, P.L. (1995) Topographic Organization of Corticospinal Projections from the Frontal Lobe: Motor Areas on the Medial Surface of the Hemisphere. Journal of Neuroscience, 15, 3284-3306.

[12]   Krakauer, J. and Ghez, C. (2000) Voluntary Movement. In: Kandel, E.R., Schwartz, J.H. and Jessel, T.M., Eds., Principles of Neural Science, McGraw-Hill, New York, 756-781.

[13]   Naidich, T.P., Hof, P.R., Yousry, T.A. and Yousry, I. (2001) The Motor Cortex: Anatomic Substrates of Function. Neuroimaging Clinics of North America, 11, 171-193.

[14]   Briggs, G.G. and Nebes, R.D. (1975) Patterns of Hand Preference in a Student Population. Cortex, 11, 230-238.

[15]   Dalacorte, A., Portuguez, M.W., das Neves, C.M., Anes, M. and Dacosta, J.C. (2012) Functional MRI Evaluation of Supplementary Motor area Language Dominance in Right- and Left-Handed Subjects. Somatosensory and Motor Research, 29, 52-61.

[16]   Strupp, J.P. (1996) Stimulate: A GUI Based fMRI Analysis Software Package. Neuroimage, 3, S607.

[17]   Krings, T., Topper, R., Foltys, H., Erberich, S., Sparing, R., et al. (2000) Cortical Activation Patterns during Complex Motor Tasks in Piano Players and Control Subjects. A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study. Neuroscience Letters, 278, 189-193.

[18]   Talairach, J. and Tournoux, P. (1988) Coplanar Stereotaxic Atlas of the Human Brain. Thieme, New York.

[19]   Thickbroom, G.W., Byrnes, M.L., Sacco, P., Ghosh, S., Morris, I.T., et al. (2000) The Role of the Supplementary Motor Area in Externally Timed Movement: The Influence of Predictability of Movement Timing. Brain Research, 874, 233-241.

[20]   Picard, N. and Strick, P.L. (1996) Motor Areas of the Medial Wall: A Review of Their Location and Functional Activation. Cerebral Cortex, 6, 342-353.

[21]   Barbas, H. and Pandya, D.N. (1987) Architecture and Frontal Cortical Connections of the Premotor Cortex (Area 6) in the Rhesus Monkey. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 256, 211-228.

[22]   Dassonville, P., Lewis, S.M., Zhu, X.H., Ugurbil, K., Kim, S.G., et al. (1998) Effects of Movement Predictability on Cortical Motor Activation. Neuroscience Research, 32, 65-74.

[23]   Hulley, S.B. and Cummings, S.R. (1988) Designing Clinical Research: An Epidemiological Approach. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.

[24]   Altman, D.G. (1991) Relation between Two Continuous Variables. In: Altman, D.G., Ed., Practical Statistics for Medical Research, Chapman & Hall, London, 277-324.

[25]   Hopkins, W.G. (2002) A Scale of Magnitudes for Effect Statistics: A New View of Statistics.

[26]   Mueller, V.A., Brass, M., Waszak, F. and Prinz, W. (2007) The Role of the preSMA and the Rostral Cingulate Zone in Internally Selected Actions. Neuroimage, 37, 1354-1361.

[27]   Witt, S.T., Laird, A.R. and Meyerand, M.E. (2008) Functional Neuroimaging Correlates of Finger-Tapping Task Variations: An ALE Meta Analysis. Neuroimage, 42, 343-356.

[28]   Tanji, J. and Shima, K. (1994) Role for Supplementary Motor Area Cells in Planning Several Movements Ahead. Nature, 371, 413-416.

[29]   Shima, K. and Tanji, J. (1998) Role for Cingulate Motor Area Cells in Voluntary Movement Selection Based on Reward. Science, 282, 1335-1338.

[30]   Hikosaka, O., Sakai, K., Miyauchi, S., Takino, R., Sasaki, Y., et al. (1996) Activation of Human Pre-Supplementary Motor Area in Learning of Sequential Procedures: A Functional MRI Study. Journal of Neurophysiology, 76, 617-621.

[31]   Humberstone, M., Sawle, G.V., Clare, S., Hykin, J., Coxon, R., et al. (1997) Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Single Motor Events Reveals Human Presupplementary Motor Area. Annals of Neurology, 42, 632-637.

[32]   Lee, K.M., Chang, K.H. and Roh, J.K. (1999) Subregions within the Supplementary Motor Area Activated at Different Stages of Movement Preparation and Execution. Neuroimage, 9, 117-123.

[33]   Richter, W., Andersen, P.M., Georgopoulos, A.P. and Kim, S.G. (1997) Sequential Activity in Human Motor Areas during a Delayed Cued Finger Movement Task Studied by Time-Resolved fMRI. Neuroreport, 8, 1257-1261.

[34]   Schubert, T., von Cramon, D.Y., Niendorf, T., Pollmann, S. and Bublak, P. (1998) Cortical Areas and the Control of Self-Determined Finger Movements: An fMRI Study. Neuroreport, 9, 3171-3176.

[35]   Van Oostende, S., Van Hecke, P., Sunaert, S., Nuttin, B. and Marchal, G. (1997) FMRI Studies of the Supplementary Motor Area and the Premotor Cortex. Neuroimage, 6, 181-190.

[36]   Wexler, B.E., Fulbright, R.K., Lacadie, C.M., Skudlarski, P., Kelz, M.B., et al. (1997) An fMRI Study of the Human Cortical Motor System Response to Increasing Functional Demands. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 15, 385-396.

[37]   Wildgruber, D., Erb, M., Klose, U. and Grodd, W. (1997) Sequential Activation of Supplementary Motor Area and Primary Motor Cortex during Self-Paced Finger Movement in Human Evaluated by Functional MRI. Neuroscience Letters, 227, 161-164.

[38]   Freund, H.J. (1996) Functional Organization of the Human Supplementary Motor Area and Dorsolateral Premotor Cortex. Advances in Neurology, 70, 263-269.

[39]   Luders, H.O. (1996) The Supplementary Sensorimotor Area: An Overview. Advances in Neurology, 70, 1-16.

[40]   Scholz, V.H., Flaherty, A.W., Kraft, E., Keltner, J.R., Kwong, K.K., et al. (2000) Laterality, Somatotopy and Reproducibility of the Basal Ganglia and Motor Cortex during Motor Tasks. Brain Research, 879, 204-215.

[41]   Krainik, A., Duffau, H., Capelle, L., Cornu, P., Boch, A.L., et al. (2004) Role of the Healthy Hemisphere in Recovery after Resection of the Supplementary Motor Area. Neurology, 62, 1323-1332.

[42]   Halsey Jr., J.H., Blauenstein, U.W., Wilson, E.M. and Wills, E.H. (1979) Regional Cerebral Blood Flow Comparison of Right and Left Hand Movement. Neurology, 29, 21-28.

[43]   Toyokura, M., Muro, I., Komiya, T. and Obara, M. (1999) Relation of Bimanual Coordination to Activation in the Sensorimotor Cortex and Supplementary Motor Area: Analysis Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Brain Research Bulletin, 48, 211-217.

[44]   Schmidt, S.L., Oliveira, R.M., Krahe, T.E. and Filgueiras, C.C. (2000) The Effects of Hand Preference and Gender on Finger Tapping Performance Asymmetry by the Use of an Infra-Red Light Measurement Device. Neuropsychologia, 38, 529-534.

[45]   Herve, P.Y., Mazoyer, B., Crivello, F., Perchey, G. and Tzourio-Mazoyer, N. (2005) Finger Tapping, Handedness and Grey Matter Amount in the Rolando’s Genu Area. Neuroimage, 25, 1133-1145.

[46]   Lutz, K., Koeneke, S., Wustenberg, T. and Jancke, L. (2005) Asymmetry of Cortical Activation during Maximum and Convenient Tapping Speed. Neuroscience Letters, 373, 61-66.

[47]   Mattay, V.S., Callicott, J.H., Bertolino, A., Santha, A.K., Van Horn, J.D., et al. (1998) Hemispheric Control of Motor Function: A Whole Brain Echo Planar fMRI Study. Psychiatry Research, 83, 7-22.

[48]   Fried, I., Katz, A., McCarthy, G., Sass, K.J., Williamson, P., et al. (1991) Functional Organization of Human Supplementary Motor Cortex Studied by Electrical Stimulation. Journal of Neuroscience, 11, 3656-3666.

[49]   Kawashima, R., Roland, P.E. and O’Sullivan, B.T. (1994) Activity in the Human Primary Motor Cortex Related to Ipsilateral Hand Movements. Brain Research, 663, 251-256.

[50]   Roland, P.E. and Zilles, K. (1996) Functions and Structures of the Motor Cortices in Humans. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 6, 773-781.

[51]   Zhu, Y., Dong, Z., Weng, X. and Chen, Y. (2005) Functional Brain Laterality for Sequential Movements: Impact of Transient Practice. Chinese Science Bulletin, 50, 235-239.

[52]   Verstynen, T., Diedrichsen, J., Albert, N., Aparicio, P. and Ivry, R.B. (2005) Ipsilateral Motor Cortex Activity during Unimanual Hand Movements Relates to Task Complexity. Journal of Neurophysiology, 93, 1209-1222.

[53]   Erdler, M., Windischberger, C., Lanzenberger, R., Edward, V., Gartus, A., et al. (2001) Dissociation of Supplementary Motor Area and Primary Motor Cortex in Human Subjects When Comparing Index and Little Finger Movements with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neuroscience Letters, 313, 5-8.

[54]   Jancke, L., Shah, N.J. and Peters, M. (2000) Cortical Activations in Primary and Secondary Motor Areas for Complex Bimanual Movements in Professional Pianists. Cognitive Brain Research, 10, 177-183.