MSA  Vol.6 No.9 , September 2015
Piezoelectric Vibration Harvesters Based on Vibrations of Cantilevered Bimorphs: A Review
ABSTRACT
With the advancement in the technologies around the world over the past few years, the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have gained much attention in harvesting the energy for wireless, self-powered and MEMS devices. In the present era, many devices are available for energy harnessing such as electromagnetic, electrostatic and piezoelectric generator and these devices are designed based on its ability to capture the different form of environment energy such as solar energy, wind energy, thermal energy and convert it into the useful energy form. Out of these devices, the use of a piezoelectric generator for energy harvesting is very attractive for MEMS applications. There are various sources of harvestable energy including waste heat, solar energy, wind energy, energy in floating water and mechanical vibrations which are used by the researchers for energy harvesting purposes. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in harvesting mechanical vibrations as an energy source by various generators (such as electromagnetic, electrostatic and piezoelectric generators). Also, the design and characteristics of piezoelectric generators, using vibrations of cantilevered bimorphs, for MEMS have also been reviewed here. Electromagnetic, electrostatic and piezoelectric generators presented in the literature are reviewed by taking into an account the power output, frequency, acceleration, dimension and application of each generator and the coupling factor of each transduction mechanism has also been discussed for all the devices.

Cite this paper
Khalid, A. , Redhewal, A. , Kumar, M. and Srivastav, A. (2015) Piezoelectric Vibration Harvesters Based on Vibrations of Cantilevered Bimorphs: A Review. Materials Sciences and Applications, 6, 818-827. doi: 10.4236/msa.2015.69084.
References
[1]   Roundy, S., Steingart, D., Frechette, L., Wright, P. and Rabaey, J. (2004) Power Sources for Wireless Sensor Networks Wirel. 1st European Wireless Sensor Networks Workshop, 2920, 1-17.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-24606-0_1

[2]   Roundy, S., Leland, E.S., Baker, J., Carleton, E., Reilly, E., Lai, E., Otis, B., Rabaey, J.M., Wright, P.K. and Sundararajan, V. (2005) Improving Power Output for Vibration-Based Energy Scavengers. IEEE Pervasive Computing, 4, 28- 36.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MPRV.2005.14

[3]   Sodano, H.A. (2004) A Reviews of Power Harvesting from Vibration Using Piezoelectric Materials. Shock & Vibration Digest, 36, 197.

[4]   Roundy, S., Wright, P.K. and Pister, K.S.J. (2002) Micro-Electrostatic Vibration to Electricity Converters. ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, November, 17-22.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/imece2002-39309

[5]   Glynne-Jones, P., Tudor, M.J., Beeby, S.P. and White, N.M. (2004) An Electromagnetic, Vibration-Powered Generator for Intelligent Sensor Systems. Sensors Actuators A, 110, 344-349.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2003.09.045

[6]   Mitcheson, P.D., Miao, P., Stark, B.H., Yeatman, E.M., Holmes, A.S. and Green, T.C. (2004) MEMS Electrostatic Micro-Power Generator for Low Frequency Operation. Sensors Actuators A, 115, 523-529.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2004.04.026

[7]   Roundy, S. and Wright, P.K. (2004) A Piezoelectric Vibration Based Generator for Wireless Electronics. Smart Materials and Structures, 13, 1131-1142.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0964-1726/13/5/018

[8]   Tadigadapa, S. and Mateti, K. (2009) Piezoelectric MEMS Sensors: State-of-the-Art and Perspectives. Measurement Science and Technology, 20, Article ID: 092001.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0957-0233/20/9/092001

[9]   Beeby, S.P., Tudor, M.J. and White, N.M. (2006) Energy Harvesting Vibration Sources for Microsystems Applications. Measurement Science and Technology, 17, R175-R195.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0957-0233/17/12/r01

[10]   (2015) What Is an Electromagnetic Generator
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-an-electromagnetic-generator.htm

[11]   Hatipoglu, G. and Urey, H. (2009) FR4 Based Electromagnetic Energy Harvesters for Wireless Sensor Nodes. Smart Materials and Structures, 19, Article ID: 015022.

[12]   Kim, S.H., Ji, C.H., Galle, P., Herrault, F., Wu, X., Lee, J.H., Choi, C.A. and Allen, M.G. (2009) An Electromagnetic Energy Scavenger from Direct Airflow. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 19, Article ID: 094010.

[13]   Meninger, S., Mur-Miranda, J.O., Amirtharajah, R., Chandrakasan, A.P. and Lang, J.H. (2001) Vibration-to-Electric Energy Conversion. IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration, 9, 64-76.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/92.920820

[14]   Roundy, S., Wright, P.K., Kristofer, S. and Pister, J. (2002) Micro-Electrostatic Vibration to Electricity Converters. Proceedings of the ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, New Orleans, 17-22 November 2002.

[15]   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrostatic_generator

[16]   https://www.americanpiezo.com/piezo-theory/generators.html

[17]   Beeby, S.P., Tudor, M.J. and White, N.M. (2006) Energy Harvesting Vibration Sources for Microsystems Applications. Measurement Science and Technology, 17, R175-R195.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0957-0233/17/12/R01

[18]   Williams, C.B., Woods, R.C. and Yates, R.B. (1996) Feasibility of a Vibration Powered Micro-Electric Generator. Proceedings of the IEE Colloquium on Compact Power Sources, London, 8 May 1996, 7/1-7/3.

[19]   Shearwood, C. and Yates, R.B. (1997) Development of an Electromagnetic Micro-Generator. Electronics Letters, 33, 1883-1884.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/el:19971262

[20]   Roundy, S., Wright, P.K., Kristofer, S. and Pister, J. (2002) Micro-Electrostatic Vibration to Electricity Converters. Proceedings of the ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, New Orleans, 17-22 November 2002.

[21]   Meninger, S., Mur-Miranda, J.O., Amirtharajah, R., Chandrakasan, A.P. and Lang, J.H. (2001) Vibration-to-Electric Energy Conversion. IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration, 9, 64-76.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/92.920820

[22]   Tashiro, R., Kabei, N., Katayama, K., Tsuboi, F. and Tsuchiya, K. (2002) Development of an Electrostatic Generator for a Cardiac Pacemaker That Harnesses the Ventricular Wall Motion. Journal of Artificial Organs, 5, 239-245.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s100470200045

[23]   Arakawa, Y., Suzuki, Y. and Kasagi, N. (2004) Micro Seismic Power Generator Using Electret Polymer Film. Proceedings of the Power MEMS Conference, Kyoto, 28-30 November 2004, 187-190.

[24]   Mitcheson, P., Stark, B., Miao, P., Yeatman, E., Holmes, A. and Green, T. (2003) Analysis and Optimization of MEMS On-Chip Power Supply for Self-Powering of Slow Moving Sensors. Proceedings of the Eurosensors XVII, Guimaraes, 21-24 September 2003, 30-31.

[25]   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piezoelectricity

[26]   Roundy, S., Wright, P.K. and Rabaye, J. (2003) A Study of Low Level Vibrations as a Power Source for Wireless Sensor Nodes. Computer and Communications, 26, 1131-1144.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-3664(02)00248-7

[27]   Lee, B.S., Lin, S.C., Wu, W.J., Wang, X.Y., Chang, P.Z. and Lee, C.K. (2009) Piezoelectric MEMS Generators Fabricated with an Aerosol Deposition PZT Thin Film. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 19, Article ID: 065014.

[28]   Hu, J., Jong, J. and Zhao, C. (2010) Vibration Energy Harvesting Based on Integrated Piezoelectric Components Operating in Different Modes. IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, 57, 386-394.

[29]   White, N.M., Glynne-Jones, P. and Beeby, S.P. (2001) A Novel Thick-Film Piezoelectric Micro-Generator Technical Note. Smart Materials and Structures, 10, 850-852.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0964-1726/10/4/403

[30]   Lu, F., Lee, H.P. and Lim, S.P. (2004) Modeling and Analysis of Micro Piezoelectric Power Generators for Micro- Electromechanical Systems Applications. Smart Materials and Structures, 13, 57-63.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0964-1726/13/1/007

[31]   Baker, J., Roundy, S. and Wright, P. (2005) Alternative Geometries for Increasing Power Density in Vibration Energy Scavenging for Wireless Sensor Networks. Proceedings of the 3rd International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, San Francisco, 15-18 August 2005, 959-970.

[32]   Yang, J., Zhao, H., Hu, Y. and Jiang, Q. (2005) Performance of a Piezoelectric Harvester in Thickness-Stretch Mode of a Plate. IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, 52, 1872-1876.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TUFFC.2005.1561644

[33]   Gao, R. and Cui, Y. (2005) Vibration Based Sensor Powering for Manufacturing Process Monitoring. Transactions of the North American Manufacturing Research Institution, Society of Manufacturing Engineers, 33, 335-342.

[34]   Mateu, L. and Moll, F. (2005) Optimum Piezoelectric Bending Beam Structures for Energy Harvesting Using Shoe Inserts. Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, 16, 835-845.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1045389X05055280

[35]   Roundy, S. and Zhang, Y. (2005) Toward Self-Tuning Adaptive Vibration Based Micro-Generators. Proceedings of SPIE, 5649, 373-384.

[36]   Lu, F., Lee, H.P. and Lim, S.P. (2004) Modeling and Analysis of Micro Piezoelectric Power Generators for Micro- Electromechanical Systems Applications. Smart Materials and Structures, 13, 57-63.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0964-1726/13/1/007

[37]   Erturk, A. and Inman, D.J. (2008) A Distributed Parameter Electromechanical Model for Cantilevered Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters. Journal of Vibration and Acoustics, 130, Article ID: 041002.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.2890402

[38]   Lee, B.S., Lin, S.C., Wu, W.J., Wang, X.Y., Chang, P.Z. and Lee, C.K. (2009) Piezoelectric MEMS Generators Fabricated with an Aerosol Deposition PZT Thin Film. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 19, Article ID: 065014.

[39]   Kim, S.H., Ji, C.H., Galle, P., Herrault, F., Wu, X., Lee, J.H., Choi, C.A. and Allen, M.G. (2009) An Electromagnetic Energy Scavenger from Direct Airflow. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 19, Article ID: 094010.

 
 
Top