WJA  Vol.5 No.3 , September 2015
Levels, Trends and Inter-Regional Variations in Transfusion Transmissible Infection Positivity among Blood Donors in India: Evidence from India’s National HIV Program
Abstract
In India, transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs) are monitored for trends at the blood bank level, but limited efforts have been made to analyze data from a large number of blood banks and present it at the national, regional and state levels. The Computerized Management Information System (CMIS), National AIDS Control Organization’s (NACO) online data capturing system, systematically collects information on TTIs in a monthly aggregated format from blood banks across the country. This information is being captured in NACO’s annual reports, but a systematic scientific analysis and publication of the same have not been attempted so far. Hence, the objective of this study is to analyze and report TTIs among blood donors in India at three different levels—national, regional and state—from 497 consistent blood banks reporting through CMIS during 2008-2012. National level analysis shows an increasing trend in voluntary blood donation from 9.28 lakh to 19.02 lakh, and a decreasing trend in TTIs, with female donors constituting only 6% of the entire pool of donors. Of the five TTIs studied, in 2012 Hepatitis-B-surface Antigen (HBsAg) positivity was highest (0.9%), followed by Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) (0.45%), syphilis (0.23%), HIV (0.17%) and malaria (0.03%). Regional analysis indicated that voluntary donation was high in the Eastern and Western regions, with 11% of female donors in Eastern India in 2012. All the TTIs showed a declining trend, except HCV, which showed a rising trend in the Eastern and Southern regions. The level of positivity for all the five TTIs was higher than the national average in the Eastern region. Among the TTIs, HIV positivity among voluntary donors was below the national average, while in Mizoram both HBsAg and HCV of more than 1% seropositivity and VDRL of 1.7% in Arunachal Pradesh had been reported. Malaria has the lowest national positivity, with Nagaland reporting a high positivity of 0.4%. Although the national and regional trends in TTI positivity are declining, regional level variations in TTIs, especially in hepatitis, suggest the importance of advocating for pre-donation counseling and educating donors on self-exclusion.

Cite this paper
Sakthivel, S. , Yujwal Raj, P. , Mishra, S. and Sharma, A. (2015) Levels, Trends and Inter-Regional Variations in Transfusion Transmissible Infection Positivity among Blood Donors in India: Evidence from India’s National HIV Program. World Journal of AIDS, 5, 217-225. doi: 10.4236/wja.2015.53025.
References

[1]   WHO (2011) Blood Safety: Key Global Facts and Figures. World Health Organization, Delhi.

[2]   Marwaha, N. and Sachdev, S. (2014) Current Testing Strategies for Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Blood Donors and the Way Forward. World Journal of Gateroenterology, 20, 2948-2954.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v20.i11.2948

[3]   Philip, J., Sarkar, R.S., Kumar, S. and Pathak, A. (2012) Changing Trends of Transfusion Transmitted Viral Infections among Blood Donors in the Last Decade—A 10-Year Study in a Large Tertiary Care Blood Bank (2000-2009). Medical Journal of Armed Forces India, 68, 28-32.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0377-1237(11)60125-1

[4]   Chandra, T., Rizvi, S.N.F. and Agarwal, D. (2014) Decreasing Prevalence of Transfusion Transmitted Infection in Indian Scenario. The Scientific World Journal, 2014, 4 p.

[5]   Sastry, J.M., Agawane, S.U. and Harke, V.A. (2014) Retrospective Study of the Five-Year Prevalence and Trends of Transfusion Transmitted Infections (TTIs) among Blood Donors at a Charitable Hospital Blood Bank In Pune, India. International Journal of Healthcare and Biomedical Research, 2, 193-200.

[6]   Giri, P.A., Deshpande, J.D., Phalke, D.B. and Karle, L.B. (2012) Seroprevalence of Transfusion Transmissible Infections among Voluntary Blood Donors at a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Rural Area of India. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 1, 48-51.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2249-4863.94452

[7]   National AIDS Control Organization, M.O.H., Governement of India (2003) National Blood Policy. NACO, Delhi.

[8]   National AIDS Control Organization, M.O.H., Government of India (2007) Status Note on Blood Safety. NACO, Delhi.

[9]   NACO (2015) HIV Sentinel Surveillance 2012-13. A Technical Brief. 2015, National AIDS Control Organisation, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, Delhi.

[10]   Kaur, H., Mannan, R. and Manjari, M. (2014) Seroprevalence of the Blood Borne Infection in Blood Donors: Our 11 Year (2001-2011) Experience in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital at Amritsar (Punjab). International Journal of Advanced Research, 2, 967-971.

[11]   Kabinda, J.M., Akilamalli, T.S., Miyanga, A.S., Donnen, P. and Michelle, D.W. (2015) Hepatitis-B, Hepatitis-C and HIV in Pregnant Women in the Community in the Democratic Republic of Congo. World Journal of AIDS, 5, 124-130.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/wja.2015.52015

[12]   Awadalla, H.I., Ragab, M.H., Nassar, N.A. and Osman, M.A. (2011) Risk Factors of Hepatitis-C Infection among Egyptian Blood Donors. Central European Journal of Public Health, 19, 217-221.

[13]   Brandão, A.B.M. and Fuchs, S.C. (2002) Risk Factors for Hepatitis-C Virus Infection among Blood Donors in Southern Brazil: A Case-Control Study. BMC Gastroenterology, 2, 18.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-230X-2-18

[14]   Karim, M.R., Alam, M., Farazi, M.M.R. and Labone, R.J. (2012) Factors Influencing Blood Donation Behavior of University Level Students in Bangladesh. Journal of Information Technology, 1, 35-40.

[15]   Nigatu, A. and Demissie, D.B. (2014) Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on Voluntary Blood Donation and Associated Factors among Ambo University Regular Students, Ambo Town, Ethiopia. Journal of Community Medicine and Health Education, 4, 315.

[16]   Pule, P.I., Rachaba, B., Magafu, M.G.M.D. and Habte, D. (2014) Factors Associated with Intention to Donate Blood: Sociodemographic and Past Experience Variables. Journal of Blood Transfusion, 2014, Article ID: 571678.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/571678

[17]   Sundar, P., Sangeetha, S.K., Seema, D.M., Marimuthu, P. and Shivanna, N. (2010) Pre-Donation Deferral of Blood Donors in South Indian Set-Up: An Analysis. Asian Journal of Transfusion Science, 4, 112-115.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-6247.67037

[18]   Bahadur, S., Jain, S., Goel, R.K., Pahuja, S. and Jain, M. (2009) Analysis of Blood Donor Deferral Characteristics in Delhi, India. South East Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 40, 1087-1091.

[19]   Sareen, R., Gupta, G.N. and Dutt, A. (2012) Donor Awareness: Key to Successful Voluntary Blood Donation. F1000 Research, 1, 29. http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.1-29.v1

[20]   Bani, M. and Giussani, B. (2010) Gender Differences in Giving Blood: A Review of Literature. Blood Transfusion, 8, 278-287.

[21]   Agnihotri, N. (2010) Whole Blood Donor Deferral Analysis at a Center in Western India. Asian Journal of Transfusion Science, 4, 116-122. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-6247.67035

[22]   WHO (2014) About Blood Safety and Availability: WHO. WHO Website.

 
 
Top