OJAS  Vol.5 No.4 , October 2015
Effect of Coat Characteristics on Physiological Traits and Heat Tolerance of West African Dwarf Sheep in Southern Nigeria
Abstract: This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of coat characteristics on physiological traits and heat tolerance of dwarf sheep in southern Nigeria. A total number of twenty West African dwarf male sheep with an average weight of 9.00 ± 0.52 kg and aged 10 months old were used for the experiment. The dwarf sheep were assigned to four treatment groups in a completely randomized design with five sheep per treatment group. The compared treatment groups were TA (black coat colour sheep with low coat depth and short hair length), TB (black coat colour sheep with high coat depth and long hair length), TC (light brown coat colour sheep with low coat depth and short hair length) and TD (light brown coat colour sheep with high coat depth and long hair length). The results obtained in the study showed that midday was significantly (P < 0.05) highest in ambient temperature (31.00℃) and temperature humidity index (28.94), but relative humidity was insignificantly (P > 0.05) affected by morning, midday and evening. Rectal temperature (40.09℃), respiratory rate (21.01 breaths/min), pulse rate (87.49 beats/min), heat tolerance coefficient (97.10%), haemoglobin (9.04 g/l), blood cell (10.84 × 106/μl), white blood cell (12.06 × 106/μl) and glucose (50.10 mg/dl) were significantly (P < 0.05) highest in TC while packed cell volume (PCV) (30.08%) was best in TD. Significant difference (P > 0.05) did not occur in total protein, albumin and globulin among treatment groups. It is concluded that coat characteristics have significant effects on physiological indices and heat tolerance in Nigeria.
Cite this paper: Okoruwa, M. (2015) Effect of Coat Characteristics on Physiological Traits and Heat Tolerance of West African Dwarf Sheep in Southern Nigeria. Open Journal of Animal Sciences, 5, 351-357. doi: 10.4236/ojas.2015.54039.

[1]   Odeyinka, S.M. and Ajaja, D.A. (2004) A Survey of Feedstuffs for Goats in Osun State. Tropical Journal of Animal Science, 7, 161-168.

[2]   Ozung, P.O., Nsa, E.E., Ebegbulem, V.N. and Ubua, J.A. (2011) The Potentials of Small Ruminant Production in Cross-River Rain Forest Zone of Nigeria: A Review. Continental Journal of Animal and Veterinary Research, 3, 33- 37.

[3]   Okoruwa, M.I., Adewumi, M.K. and Igene, F.U. (2013) Thermophysiological Responses of West African Dwarf (WAD) Bucks Fed Pennisetum purpureum and Unripe Plantain Peels. Nigerian Journal of Animal Science, 15, 168-178.

[4]   Marai, I.F.M., El-Darawany, A.A., Fadiel, A. and Abdel-Hafez, M.A.M. (2007) Physiological Traits as Affected by Heat Stress in Sheep: A Review. Small Ruminant Research, 71, 1-12.

[5]   Helal, A., Hashem, A.L.S., Abdel-Fattah, M.S. and El-Shaer, H.M. (2010) Effect of Heat Stress on Coat Characteristics and Physiological Responses of Balady and Damascus Goats in Sinai, Egypt. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Science, 7, 60-69.

[6]   Al-Haidary, A.A., Samara, E.M., Okab, A.B. and Abodun, K.A. (2013) Thermophysiological Responses and Heat Tolerance of Saudi Camel Breeds. International Journal of Chemical, Environmental& Biochemical Science, 1, 173-176.

[7]   Charoensook, R., Gatphayak, K., Sharifi, A.R., Chaisongkram Brenig B. and Knorr, C. (2012) Polymorphisms in the Bovine HSP90ABI Gene Are Associated with Heat Tolerance in Thai indigenous Cattle. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 44, 921-928.

[8]   Castanheira, M., Paiva, S.R., Louvandini, H., Landim, A., Fiorvanti, M.C.S., Dallago, B.S., Correa, P.S. and McManus, C. (2010) Use of Heat Tolerance Traits in Discriminating between Groups of Sheep in Central Brazil. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 42, 1821-1828.

[9]   Sanusi, A.O., Peter, S.O., Sonibare, A.O. and Ozojie, M.O. (2010) Effect of Coat Colour on Heat Stress among West African Dwarf Sheep. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production, 38, 28-36.

[10]   AOAC (1995) Official Methods of Analysis. 14th Edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC, 141.

[11]   Al-Haidary, A.A., Aljumaah, R.S., Alshaikh, M.A., Abdoun, K.A., Samara, E.M., Okab, A.B. and Alfuraiji, M.M. (2012) Thermoregulatory and Physiological Responses of Najdi Sheep Exposed to Environmental Heat Load Prevailing in Saudi Arabia. Pakistan Veterinary Journal, 32, 515-519.

[12]   Marai, I.F.M., El-Darawany, A.A., Abou-Fandoud, E.I. and Abdel-Hafez, M.A.M. (2009) Reproductive and Physiological Traits of Egyptian Suffolk Rams as Affected by Selenium Dietary Supplementation during the Sub-Tropical Environment of Egypt. Archive Tierzucht, 52, 402-409.

[13]   Ikhimioya, I. and Imasuen, J.A. (2007) Blood Profile of West African Dwarf Goats Fed Panicum maximum Supplemented with Afzelia aficana and Newbouldia laevis. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 5, 79-84.

[14]   SAS (2003) Statistical Analysis System User’s Guide: Statistical Version 8 Edition. SAS Institute, Cary.

[15]   Hansen, P.J. (2004) Physiological and Cellular Adaptation of Zebu Cattle to Thermal Stress. Animal Reproduction Science, 82, 349-360.

[16]   Alamer, A. and Al-Hazah, A. (2004) Effect of Water Deprivation and Season of Feed Intake, Body Weight and Thermoregulation in Awassi and Najdi Sheep Breeds in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Arid Environments, 59, 71-84.

[17]   Mc-Manus, C., Prescott, E., Paludo, G.R., Bianchini, E., Louvandini, H. and Mariante, A.S. (2009) Heat Tolerance in Naturalized Brazilian Cattle Breeds. Livestock Science, 120, 256-264.

[18]   Ocak, S., Darcan, N., Cankaya, S. and Inal, T.C. (2009) Physiological and Biochemical Responses in German Fawn Kids Subjected to Cooling Treatments under Mediterranean Climate Condition. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 33, 455-461.