OJF  Vol.5 No.7 , October 2015
Stimulation of Multiple Leader Formation in Some Genotypes of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis with 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP)
Abstract: Acacia mangium Willd. and Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex. Benth. are two of the fast-growing tropical acacias which have received priority for genetic assessment and improvement. They were therefore proposed for timber production in a short rotation in Malaysia but were impeded by the multiple leaders (ML) formation which limited their value as sawn timber. This work attempts to investigate the causes of ML formation in four genotypes of A. mangium and A. auriculiformis as related to apical dominance, nutrition and plant growth hormones and their correlations. The effects of 6-benzylaminopurine and decapitation on ML formation of these genotypes were also investigated. 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) as a foliar spray and also decapitation did not stimulate ML formation. However, they significantly increased the number of branches and reduced all other growth traits including height. However, basal diameter was not affected by decapitation. The effects of BAP increased consistently with increasing level of application. BAP at 1500 mg·Lǃ resulted in mortality of A. mangium provenances while A. auriculiformis provenances survived and grew normally. Some of the BAP treated plants of both species developed juvenile pinnate leaves. Decapitation of the apical bud resulted in the activation of the lateral bud immediately below the point of decapitation.
Cite this paper: Eldoma, A. , Muniandi, S. and Ab Shukor, N. (2015) Stimulation of Multiple Leader Formation in Some Genotypes of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis with 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP). Open Journal of Forestry, 5, 637-650. doi: 10.4236/ojf.2015.57056.

[1]   Bennett, T., & Leyser, O. (2006). Something on the Side: Axillary Meristems and Plant Development. Plant Molecular Biology, 60, 843-854.

[2]   Borchert, R. (1965). Gibberllic Acid and Rejuvenation of Apical Meristerms in Acacia melanoxylon. Naturwissenschaften, 52, 65-66.

[3]   Boswell, S. B., & Storey, W. B. (1974). Cytokinin-Induced Axillary Bud Sprouting in Macadamia. HortScience, 9, 115-116. induced+axillary+bud+sprouting+in+macadamia&cx=

[4]   Boswell, S. B., Nauer E. M., & Storey, W. B. (1981). Axillary Buds Sprouting in Macadamia Induced by Two Cytokinins and A Growth Inhibitor. HortScience, 16, 46.

[5]   Brar, G. R. P. S. (2012). Effect of Photoperiod, Water Stress and Nitrogen Nutrition on Bud Push, Scion Growth and Cytokinin Content in Container-Grown Citrus Nursery Trees. Ph.D. Thesis, Gainesville: University of Florida.

[6]   Broome, O. C., & Zimmerman, R. H. (1976). Breaking Bud Dormancy in Tea Crabapple Malus hupehensis with Cytokinins. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Sciences, 101, 28-30.

[7]   Brown, C. L., McAlpine R. G., & Kormanik, P. P. (1967). Apical Dominance and Form in Woody Plants: A Reappraisal. American Journal of Botany, 54, 153-162.

[8]   Chen, H. J., Bollmark, M., & Eliasson, L. (1996). Evidence That Cytokinin Controls Bud Size and Branch Form in Norway Spruce. Physiologia Plantarum, 98, 612-618.

[9]   Chernyad’ev, (2005). Effect of Water Stress on the Photosynthetic Apparatus of Plants and the Protective Role of Cytokinins: A Review. Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology, 41, 115-128.

[10]   Cline, M. G. (1991). Apical Dominance. The Botanical Review, 57, 318-358.

[11]   Cline, M. G. (1997). Concepts and Terminology of Apical Dominance. American Journal of Botany, 84, 1064-1069.

[12]   Cohen, M. A. (1978). Shoot Apex Development and Rooting of Pinus strobes L. by Dwarf Shoots. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Sciences, 103, 483-484.

[13]   Croxdale, J. G. (1967). Hormones and Apical Dominance in the Fern Davallia. Journal of Experimental Botany, 27, 801-815.

[14]   De Langlade, R. A. (1965). A Comparative Study of The Morphogenesis of Bipinnate Leaves and Phyllodes of Acacia melanoxylon and the Influence of the Environment on the Initiation of Phyllodes. Dissertation Abstracts, 26, 647.

[15]   Dun E. A., Ferguson B. J., & Beveridge, C. A. (2006). Apical Dominance and Shoot Branching. Divergent Opinions or Divergent Mechanisms? Plant Physiology, 142, 812-819.

[16]   Eldoma, A. M. A., Kumar, S. M., & Shukor, N. A. A. (2015) Effects of Site Burning on Multiple Leader Formation and Growth Performance of Selected Acacia Genotypes. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 6, 777-784.

[17]   Elfving, D. C. (1984). Factors Affecting Apple-Tree Response to Chemical Branch-Induction Treatments. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Sciences, 109, 476-481.

[18]   Elfving, D. C. (1985). Comparison of Cytokinin and Apical-Dominance-Inhibiting Growth Regulators for Lateral Branch Induction in Nursery and Orchard Apple Trees. HortScience, 60, 447-454.

[19]   Fumey, D., Lauri, P. E., Guedon, Y., Godin, C., & Costes, E. (2011). How Young Trees Cope with Removal of Whole or Parts of Shoots: An Analysis of Local and Distant Responses to Pruning in 1-Year-Old Apple (Malus × domestica; Rosaceae) Trees. American Journal of Botany, 98, 1737-1751.

[20]   Harrison, M. A., & Kaufman, P. B. (1980). Hormonal Regulation of Lateral Bud (Tiller) Release in Oats (Avena sativa L.). Plant Physiology, 66, 1123-1127.

[21]   Henny, R. J., & Fooshee, W. C. (1985). Induction of Basal Shoots in Spathiphyllum “Tasson” Following Treatment with BA. HortScience, 20, 715-717.

[22]   Hillman, J. R. (1984). Apical Dominance. In M. B. Wilkins (Ed.), Advanced Plant Physiology (pp. 127-148). London: Pitman.

[23]   Hillman, J. R., & Yeang, H. Y. (1981). Control of Lateral Bud Growth in Phaseolus vulgaris by Ethylene in the Apical Shoot. Journal of Experimental Botany, 30, 395-404.

[24]   Ishihara, M. I. (2013). Role of Axis Reversal from the Short-Shoot to Long-Shoot Habit for Crown Maintenance in Slow-Growing Betula maximowicziana Trees. American Journal of Botany, 100, 346-356.

[25]   Kossuth, S. V. (1978). Induction of Fascicular Buds Development in Pinus sylvesteris L. HortScience, 13, 174-176.

[26]   Lauri, P. E. (2007). Differentiation and Growth Traits Associated with Acrotony in the Apple Tree (Malus ×domestica, Rosaceae).. American Journal of Botany, 94, 1273-1281.

[27]   Lauri, P. E., Bourdel, G., Trottier, C., & Cochard, H. (2008). Apple Shoots Architecture: Evidence for Strong Variability of Bud Size and Composition and Hydraulics within a Branching Zone. New Phytologist, 178, 798-807.

[28]   Lauri, P. E., Kelner, J. J., Trottier, C., & Costes, E. (2010). Insights into Secondary Growth in Perennial Plants: Its Unequal Spatial and Temporal Dynamics in the Apple (Malus domestica) Is Driven by Architectural Position and Fruit Load. Annals of Botany, 105, 607-616.

[29]   Leyser, O. (2003). Regulation of Shoot Branching by Auxin. Trends in Plant Science, 8, 541-545.

[30]   Little, C. H. A. (1984). Promoting Bud Development in Balsam Fir Christmas Trees with 6-Benzylaminopurine. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 14, 447-451.

[31]   Little, C. H. A. (1985). Increasing Lateral Shoot Production in Balsam Fir Christmas Trees with Cytokinin Application. HortScience, 25, 64-70.

[32]   Loreti, F., & Pisani, P. L. (1990). Structural Manipulation for Improved Performance in Woody Plants. HortScience, 25, 64-70.

[33]   Monakhova, O. F., & Chernyad’ev, I. I. (2004). Effects of Cytokinins Preparations on the Stability of the Photosynthetic Apparatus of Two Wheat Cultivars Experiencing Water Deficiency. Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology, 40, 573-580.

[34]   Morris, D. A. (1977). Transport of Exogenous Auxin in Two-Branched Dwarf Pea Seedlings. Pisum sativum L. Planta, 136, 91-96.

[35]   Morris, D. A. (1981). Incorporation of Label from Root-Applied N6 (18OC) Furfuryladenine into the Guanine Nucleotide Fraction of Pea Bud Ribonucleic Acid. Plant Physiology, 52, 315-319.

[36]   Nauer, E. M., & Boswell, S. B. (1981). Stimulating Growth of Quiescent Citrus Buds with 6-Benzylaminopurine. HortScience, 16, 162-163.

[37]   New, T. R. (1984). A Biology of Acacias. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

[38]   Ng, F. S. P. (1999). The Development of Tree Trunk in Relation to Apical Dominance and Other Shoot Organization Concepts. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 11, 270-285.

[39]   Philips, I. D. J. (1975). Apical Dominance. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 26, 341-367.

[40]   Pospisilova, J., Synkova, H., & Rulcova, J. (2000). Cytokinins and Water Stress. Biologia Plantarum, 43, 321-328.

[41]   Radhika, & Thind, S. K. (2013). Biochemical Variation as Influenced by Benzylaminopurine Application in Wheat Genotypes under Variable Water Deficit Conditions. The Institute of Integrative Omics and Applied Biotechnology Journal, 4, 10-16.

[42]   Raza, S. H., Athar, H. R., & Ashraf, M. (2006). Influence of Exogenously Applied Glycinebetaine on the Photosynthetic Capacity of Two Differently Adapted Wheat Cultivars under Salt Stress. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 38, 341-352.

[43]   Ron’zhina, E. S. (2003). Effect of 6-Benzylaminopurine on The Structure of the Photosynthetic Apparatus of Faba Bean (Vicia faba L). Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology, 39, 411-417.

[44]   Rubinstein, B., & Nagao, M. A. (1976). Lateral Bud Outgrowth and Its Control by the Apex. The Botanical Review, 42, 83-113.

[45]   Sachs, T., & Thimann, K. V. (1964). Release of Lateral Buds from Apical Dominance. Nature, 201, 939-940.

[46]   Sachs, T., & Thimann, K. V. (1967). The Role of Auxins and Cytokinin in the Release of Buds from Dominance. American Journal of Botany, 54, 136-144.

[47]   Trippi, V. S. (1963). Studies on Ontogeny and Senility in Plants. VI. Reversion in Acacia melanoxylon and Morphogentic Changes in Gallardia pulchella. Phyton, International Journal of Experimental Botany, 20, 172-174.

[48]   Wareing, P. F., & Philips, I. D. J. (1981). Growth and Differentiation in Plants. New York: Pergamon Press.

[49]   Wilson, B. F. (2000). Apical Control of Branch Growth and Angle in Woody Plants. American Journal of Botany, 87, 601-607.