Theory of a Mach Effect Thruster I

Affiliation(s)

^{1}
Department of Physics, California State University Fullerton, Fullerton, USA.

^{2}
School of Engineering & Applied Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.

ABSTRACT

The Mach Effect Thruster (MET) is a propellant—less space drive which uses Mach’s principle to produce thrust in an accelerating material which is undergoing mass—energy fluctuations, [1]-[3]. Mach’s principle is a statement that the inertia of a body is the result of the gravitational interaction of the body with the rest of the mass-energy in the universe. The MET device uses electric power of 100 - 200 Watts to operate. The thrust produced by these devices, at the present time, are small on the order of a few micro-Newtons. We give a physical description of the MET device and apparatus for measuring thrusts. Next we explain the basic theory behind the device which involves gravitation and advanced waves to incorporate instantaneous action at a distance. The advanced wave concept is a means to conserve momentum of the system with the universe. There is no momentun violation in this theory. We briefly review absorber theory by summarizing Dirac, Wheeler-Feynman and Hoyle-Narlikar (HN). We show how Woodward’s mass fluctuation formula can be derived from first principles using the HN-theory which is a fully Machian version of Einstein’s relativity. HN-theory reduces to Einstein’s field equations in the limit of smooth fluid distribution of matter and a simple coordinate transformation.

The Mach Effect Thruster (MET) is a propellant—less space drive which uses Mach’s principle to produce thrust in an accelerating material which is undergoing mass—energy fluctuations, [1]-[3]. Mach’s principle is a statement that the inertia of a body is the result of the gravitational interaction of the body with the rest of the mass-energy in the universe. The MET device uses electric power of 100 - 200 Watts to operate. The thrust produced by these devices, at the present time, are small on the order of a few micro-Newtons. We give a physical description of the MET device and apparatus for measuring thrusts. Next we explain the basic theory behind the device which involves gravitation and advanced waves to incorporate instantaneous action at a distance. The advanced wave concept is a means to conserve momentum of the system with the universe. There is no momentun violation in this theory. We briefly review absorber theory by summarizing Dirac, Wheeler-Feynman and Hoyle-Narlikar (HN). We show how Woodward’s mass fluctuation formula can be derived from first principles using the HN-theory which is a fully Machian version of Einstein’s relativity. HN-theory reduces to Einstein’s field equations in the limit of smooth fluid distribution of matter and a simple coordinate transformation.

KEYWORDS

Mach Effect Drive, Transient Mass Fluctuations, Weak Field Limit Gravitation, Modified (PPN) Parameterized Post Newtonian Approximation, Linearized Einstein Equations, Gravitoelectromagnetism

Mach Effect Drive, Transient Mass Fluctuations, Weak Field Limit Gravitation, Modified (PPN) Parameterized Post Newtonian Approximation, Linearized Einstein Equations, Gravitoelectromagnetism

Cite this paper

Fearn, H. , Zachar, A. , Wanser, K. and Woodward, J. (2015) Theory of a Mach Effect Thruster I.*Journal of Modern Physics*, **6**, 1510-1525. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2015.611155.

Fearn, H. , Zachar, A. , Wanser, K. and Woodward, J. (2015) Theory of a Mach Effect Thruster I.

References

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[2] Fearn, H. and Woodward, J.F. (2012) Recent Investigation of Mach Effect Thrusters. Proceedings of the 48th Joint Propulsion Conference, Altanta, 29th July-1st August 2012.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/6.2014-3821

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[35] Ciufolini, I. and Wheeler, J.A. (1995) Gravitation and Inertia. Princeton Series in Physics, Princeton.

[1] Woodward, J.F. (2012) Starships and Stargates. Springer Press.

[2] Fearn, H. and Woodward, J.F. (2012) Recent Investigation of Mach Effect Thrusters. Proceedings of the 48th Joint Propulsion Conference, Altanta, 29th July-1st August 2012.

[3] Fearn, H. and Woodward, J.F. (2013) Journal of Space Exploration, 2, 98-105.

[4] Fearn, H. and Wanser, K. (2014) Journal of Space Exploration, 3, 197-205.

[5] Dirac, P.A.M. (1938) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A, A167, 148.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1938.0124

[6] Wheeler, J.A. and Feynman, R.P. (1945) Reviews of Modern Physics, 17, 157.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/RevModPhys.17.157

[7] Hogarth, J.E. (1962) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A, A267, 365-383.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1962.0105

[8] Hoyle, F. and Narlikar, J.V. (1964) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A, A282, 191.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1964.0227

[9] Hoyle, F. and Narlikar, J.V. (1974) Action at a Distance in Physics and Cosmology. W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco.

[10] Hoyle, F. and Narlikar, J.V. (1996) Lectures on Cosmology and Action at a Distance Electrodynamics. World Scientific, London.

[11] Hawking, S.W. (1965) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A, 286, 313-319.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1965.0146

[12] Fearn, H. (2015) Journal of Modern Physics, 6, 260-272.

http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2015.63031

[13] Einstein, A. (1912) Vierteljahrsschrift fur gerichtliche Medizin und offentliches Sanitatswesen, 44, 37-40. Translated into English and Reprinted in CPAE, Vol. 4, 126.

[14] Lynden-Bell, D., Bicak, J. and Katz, J. (1999) Annals of Physics, 271, 1-22.

[15] Cramer, J.G. (1986) Reviews of Modern Physics, 58, 647-688.

[16] Cramer, J.G. (1986) The Quantum Handshake. Springer, Berlin.

[17] Kastner, R.E. (2013) The Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

[18] Einstein, A., Podolsky, B. and Rosen, N. (1935) Physical Review, 47, 777-780.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.47.777

[19] Scully, M.O. and Druhl, K. (1982) Physical Review A, 25, 2208-2213.

[20] Scully, M.O., Englert, B.-G. and Walther, H. (1991) Nature, 351, 111-116.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/351111a0

[21] Forward, R.L. (1961) General Relativity for the Experimentalist. Proceedings of the IRE, 49, 892-904.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JRPROC.1961.287932

[22] Weinberg, S. (1972) Gravitation and Cosmology, Principles and Applications of the General Theory of Relativity. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

[23] Schutz, B. (1985) A First Course in General Relativity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 200-208.

[24] Misner, C.W., Thorne, K.S. and Wheeler, J.A. (1973) Gravitation. W. H. Freeman and Co., New York, Section 18.1, 445-459.

[25] Fearn, H., Zachar, A., Wanser, K. and Woodward, J.F. (2014) Theory of a Mach Effect Thruster. 50th AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference, Cleveland, 28-30 July 2014.

http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/6.2014-3821

[26] Moller, C. (1960) The Theory of Relativity. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

[27] Wilczek, F. (2006) Fantastic Realities. World Scientific, Singapore, 236.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/6019

[28] Wilczek, F. (2012) Origins of Mass. arXiv:1206.7114 (hep-ph).

[29] Einstein, A. (1905) Annals of Physics, 18, 639-641. Reprinted in CPAE, Vol. 3.

[30] Tetrode, H. (1922) Zeitschrift für Physik, 10, 317-328.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01332574

[31] Lewis, G.N. (1926) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 12, 22-29.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.12.1.22

[32] Jackson, J.D. (1999) Classical Electrodynamics. 3rd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 771.

[33] Hoyle, F. and Narlikar, J.V. (1964) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A, 282, 184-190.

[34] Hoyle, F. and Narlikar, J.V. (1966) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A, 294, 138-148.

[35] Ciufolini, I. and Wheeler, J.A. (1995) Gravitation and Inertia. Princeton Series in Physics, Princeton.