OJCE  Vol.5 No.3 , September 2015
Alternative Solutions for RTK-GPS Applications in Building and Road Constructions
Abstract: Currently, Global Positioning System (GPS) techniques are becoming a much larger part of the surveying industry. Many companies are now using GPS in their everyday work activities. The Real Time Kinematic (RTK) positioning is an integral part of topographic surveys, road surveying, constructions and most civil engineering applications. Normally, RTK can be used to collect the positioning data successfully and quickly. The civil and construction projects are designed in ground distances while RTK measurements are done in grid coordinate system, in which the distances between points are different from ground. The RTK measurements should be converted to ground for compatibility with the designed. In this paper, the accuracy of three alternatives for converting RTK measurements to ground was studied. These alternatives are, using scale factor, using two ground reference points and using Low Distortion Projection (LDP) surface. For the accuracy investigation purpose, a traverse of 14 points elongated for a distance of about 1400 m was constructed. Its coordinates were measured using total station, then the misclosure error was computed and the coordinates were adjusted. The traverse points coordinates were measured again using RTK_GPS considering one of them as base point. The three studied alternatives were applied and the results were compared. The results show that the accuracy of the three alternatives is ranging from 2.1 to 2.9 cm in the relative position of points to the base point. For absolute position accuracy, the two ground reference points alternative is the most accurate alternative with an average error of 3.8 cm while the other two alternatives are almost the same with an average error of 12.3 cm.
Cite this paper: Khalil, R. (2015) Alternative Solutions for RTK-GPS Applications in Building and Road Constructions. Open Journal of Civil Engineering, 5, 312-321. doi: 10.4236/ojce.2015.53031.

[1]   El-Mowafy, A. (2000) Performance Analysis of the RTK Technique in an Urban Environment. The Australian Surveyor, 45, 47-54.

[2]   Lemmon, T. and Gerdan, G. (1999) The Influence of the Number of Satellites on the Accuracy of RTK GPS Positions. The Australian Surveyor, 44, 64-70.

[3]   El-Mowafy, A. (2004) Surveying with GPS for Construction Works Using the National RTK Reference Network and Precise Geoid Models. Proceedings of 1st FIG International Symposium on Engineering Surveys for Construction Works and Structural Engineering, Nottingham, 28 June-1 July 2004, 14 p.

[4]   Fitts, W.R. (2005) Precision GPS Surveying at Cottam, England. Journal of Field Archaeology, 30, 181-190.

[5]   Ehsani, M.R., Upadhyaya, S.K. and Mattson, M.L. (2004) Seed Location Mapping Using RTK GPS. Transactions of the ASAE, 47, 909-914.

[6]   Kizil, U. and Tisor, L. (2011) Evaluation of RTK-GPS and Total Station for Applications in Land Surveying. Journal of Earth System Science, 120, 215-221.

[7]   Sass, J. (2013) GNSS or Total station? Selecting the Right Tool for the Job. Machine Control Magazine, 3, 46-48.

[8]   Lee, J.M., Park, J.Y. and Choi, J.Y. (2013) Evaluation of Sub-Aerial Topographic Surveying Techniques Using Total Station and RTK-GPS for Applications in Macro-Tidal Sand Beach Environment. Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue, 65, 535-540.

[9]   Chekole, S.D. (2014) Surveying with GPS, Total Station and Terrestrial Laser Scanner: A Comparative Study. Master of Science Thesis in Geodesy No. 3131, KTH, Stockholm.

[10]   Huang, J.D., Jackson, D.W.T. and Cooper, J.A.G. (2002) Morphological Monitoring of a High Energy Beach System Using GPS and Total Station Techniques, Runkerry, Co. Antrim, Northern Ireland. Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue, 36, 390-398.

[11]   Mekik, C. and Arslanoglu, M. (2009) Investigation on Accuracies of Real Time Kinematic GPS for GIS Applications. Remote Sensing, 1, 22-35.

[12]   Janssen, V., Haasdyk, J. and Mcelroy, S. (2012) Real-Time GNSS Field Procedures: Maximising Gain and Minimising Pain. Position, 57, 24-27.

[13]   Chang, C.C. and Tsai, W.Y. (2006) Evaluation of a GPS-Based Approach for Rapid and Precise Determination of Geodetic/Astronomical Azimuth. Journal of Surveying Engineering, 132, 149-154.

[14]   Burkholder, E.F. (2012) Contrasting a Low Distortion Projection (LDP) With the Global Spatial Data Model (GSDM). Global COGO, Inc., Las Cruces, NM.

[15]   Dennis, M. (2010) National Geodetic Survey User Guidelines for Single Base Real Time GNSS Positioning, Low Distortion Projections (Appendix E).

[16]   Sincovec, R. (2010) Solving the “Grid To Ground” Problem with Custom Coordinate Systems.

[17]   Dennis, M. (2015) Ground Truth: Design and Documentation of Low Distortion Projections for Surveying and GIS. Proceedings of Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon Annual Conference.