Health  Vol.7 No.9 , September 2015
Relationship between Nutritional Status and Functional Capacity for Older People
ABSTRACT
Functional capacity is the condition of an individual living independently and the lack of it for preparing and eating food, which is a factor that can result in malnutrition and deserves the attention of professionals and his family members. Then, the aim of this work was to evaluate the relationship between nutritional status and functional capacity for older adults using anthropometric measures and questionnaires for activities of daily and instrumental living. It was an epidemiological cross-sectional study using a representative sample of older adults selected from a previous study about quality of life in a Botucatu city, Sao Paulo. Brazil. The sample size was calculated considering 95% of reliability and 5% of error margin, resulting from a total of 365 individuals of both sexes but only 361 of them completed the protocol. Data included sociodemographic and morbidities questionnaires, activities of daily and instrumental living (ADL and IADL) and an-thropometric variables. 62.6% of the older were women, 44.68% were hypertensive, 28.81% were diabetic and 15.51% had hypercholesterolemia. 94.24% and 92.42% of the older were fully independent for ADL and IADL, respectively. Associations between ADL with marital status and schooling were found as well as with IADL. Also, it was found association with IADL and heart disease. Regarding anthropometry most of measures when compared men and women were significant. No significant association was found between nutritional status and ADL. A logistic regression model was fitted considering ADL as a response variable showed BMI as a protection factor and WC as a risk factor for dependence. For IADL, heart disease was a risk factor for dependence. In conclusion, low weight and increased waist circumference have influence in a functional capacity of older adults according to the activities daily living (ADL) and heart disease for IADL.

Cite this paper
de Souza, L. , Papini, S. and Corrente, J. (2015) Relationship between Nutritional Status and Functional Capacity for Older People. Health, 7, 1090-1097. doi: 10.4236/health.2015.79124.
References
[1]   Kagansky, N., Berner, Y., Koren-Morag, N., Perelman, L., Knobler, H. and Levy, S. (2005) Poor Nutritional Habits Are Predictors of Poor Outcome in Very Old Hospitalized Patients. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 82, 784- 791; quiz 913-914.

[2]   Gariballa, S. and Forster, S. (2007) Associations between Underlying Disease and Nutritional Status Following Disease and Nutritional Status Following Acute Illness in Older People. Clinical Nutrition, 26, 466-473.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2007.01.012

[3]   Tavares, E.L. and Anjos, L.A. (1999) Anthropometric Profile of the Elderly Brazilian Population: Results of the National Health and Nutrition Survey, 1989. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 15, 759-768.

[4]   Kuczmarski, M.F., Kuczmarski, R.J. and Najjar, M. (2000) Descriptive Anthropometric Reference Data for Older Americans. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 100, 59-66.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-8223(00)00021-3

[5]   Perissinotto, E., Pisent, C., Sergi, G., Grigoletto, F. and Enzi, G. (2002) Anthropometric Measurements in the Elderly: Age and Gender Differences. British Journal of Nutrition, 87, 177-186.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/BJN2001487

[6]   Velasquez-Alva, M.C., Irigoyen, C.M.E., Zepeda, Z.M., Sanchez, M.V.M., Garcia, J.L., Cisneros, M.P., et al. (2003) Anthropometric Measurements of Sixty-Year and Older Mexican Urban Group. Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 7, 1-5.

[7]   Hughes, V.A., Roubenoff, R., Wood, M., Frontera, W.R., Evans, W.J. and Fiatarone-Singh, M.A. (2004) Anthropometric Assessment of 10-y Changes in Body Composition in the Elderly. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80, 475-482.

[8]   Santos, J.L., Albala, C., Lera, L., Garcia, C., Arroyo, P., Pérez-Bravo, F., Angel, B. and Peláez, M. (2004) Anthropometric measurements in the elderly population of Santiago, Chile. Nutrition, 20, 452-457.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2004.01.010

[9]   Sampaio, L.R. (2004) Nutirional Evaluation and Aging. Brazilian Journal of Nutrition, 17, 507-514.

[10]   Cordeiro, R.C., Dias, R.C., Dias, J.M.D., Perracini, M. and Ramos, L.R. (2002) Interact Agreement of a Physical Therapy Assessment Tool of Institutionalized Elderly Females. Physical Therapy & Research, 9, 69-77.

[11]   Nybo, H., Petersen, H.C., Gaist, D., Jeune, B., Andersen, K., Mcgue, M., et al. (2003) Predictors of Mortality in 2,249 Nonagenariansa—The Danish 1905-Cohort Survey. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51, 1365-1373.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1532-5415.2003.51453.x

[12]   Ben-Ezra, M. and Shmotkin, D. (2006) Predictors of Mortality in the Old-Old in Israel: The Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Aging Study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 54, 906-911.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2006.00741.x

[13]   Goncalves, L.H.T., Silva, A.H., Mazo, G.Z., Benedetti, T.R.B., Santos, S.M.A., Marques, S., et al. (2010) Institutionalized Elderly: Functional Capacity and Physical Fitness. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 26, 1738-1746.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X2010000900007

[14]   Katz, S., Ford, A.B., Moskowitz, R.W., Jackson, B.A. and Jaffe, M.W. (1963) Studies of Illness in the Aged. The Index of ADL: A Standardized Measure of Biological and Psychosocial Function. JAMA, 85, 914-919.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1963.03060120024016

[15]   Schroll, M. (2003) Aging, Food Patterns and Disability. Forum of Nutrition, 56, 256-258.

[16]   Nacimento, C., Ribeiro, A.Q., Cotta, R.M.M., Acurcio, F.A., Peixoto, S.V., Priore, S.E. and Franceschini, S.C.C. (2011) Nutritional Status and Associated Factors among the Elderly in Vicosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 27, 2409-2418.

[17]   Medeiros, P., Lima, R.A., Sardinha, A.H.L., Diniz, D.C. and Aragao, M.A.M. (2014) Elderly Assisted in a Health Care Center Nutritional Aspects. Journal of Health Research, 15, 351-355.

[18]   Sousa, K.T., Mesquita, L.A.S., Pereira, L.A. and Azeredo, C.M. (2014) Low Weight and Functional Disability in Institutionalized Elderly Interns in Uberlandia in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Ciência & Saúde Coletiva, 19, 3513-3520.

[19]   Lawton, M.P. and Brody, E.M. (1969) Assessment of Older People: Self-Maintaining and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. The Gerontologist, 9, 179-186.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/9.3_Part_1.179

[20]   OPAS, Organizacao Pan-Americana (2002) XXXVI Reunion del Comite Asesor de Ivestigaciones en Salud—Encuestra Multicentrica—Salud Beinestar y Envejecimeiento (SABE) en America Latina e el Caribe—Informe preliminar.
http://www.opas.org/program/sabe.htm

[21]   Otero, U.B., Rozenfeld, S., Gadelha, A.M.J. and Carvalho, M.S. (2002) Malnutrition Mortality in the Elderly, Southeast Brazil, 1980-1997. Revista de Saúde Pública, 36, 141-148.

[22]   Inel, M., Ribeiro, A., Qmen, E.M., Sergi, G., Coin, A., Miotto, F., Peruzza, S. and Enzi, G. (2003) Can Obesity Be a Risk Factor in Elderly People? Obesity Reviews, 4, 147-155.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1467-789X.2003.00107.x

[23]   Barreto, S.M., Passos, V.M.A. and Lima-Costa, M.F. (2003) Obesity and Underweight among Brazilian Elderly: The Bambuí Health and Aging Study. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 19, 605-612.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X2003000200027

[24]   Population Reference Bureau (2007) Underweight, Undernutrition, and the Aging. Today’s Research Aging.
http://www.prb.org/pdf07/TodaysResearchAging8.pdf

[25]   Guigoz, Y. (2006) The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA1) Review of the Literature—What Does It Tell Us? The Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging, 10, 466-468.

[26]   Chevalier, S., Saoud, F., Gray-Donald, K. and Morais, J.A. (2008) The Physical Functional Capacity of Frail Elderly Persons Undergoing Ambulatory Rehabilitation Is Related to Their Nutritional Status. Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging, 12, 721-726.

[27]   Abd-Al-Atty, M.F., Abou-Hasem, R.M. and Elaziz, K.M.A. (2012) Functional Capacity of Recently Hospitalized Elderly in Relation to Nutrition Status. European Geriatric Medicine, 3, 356-359.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eurger.2012.08.003

[28]   Oliveira, M.R.M., Fogaca, K.C.P. and Leandro-Merhi, V.A. (2009) Nutritional Status and Functional Capacity of Hospitalized Elderly. Nutrition Journal, 8, 54.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-8-54

[29]   Davison, K.K., Ford, E.S., Cogswell, M.E. and Dietz, W.H. (2002) Percentage of Body Fat and Body Mass Index Are Associated with Mobility Limitations in People Aged 70 and Older from NHANES III. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 50, 1802-1809.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1532-5415.2002.50508.x

[30]   Sternfeld, B., Ngo, L., Satariano, W.A. and Tager, I.B. (2002) Associations of Body Composition with Physical Performance and Self-Reported Functional Limitation in Elderly Men and Women. American Journal of Epidemiology, 156, 110-121.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwf023

[31]   Chen, H., Bermúdez, O.I. and Tucker, K.L. (2002) Waist Circumference and Weight Change Are Associated with Disability among Elderly Hispanics. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 57, M19-M25.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/57.1.M19

[32]   Bannerman, E., Miller, M.D., Daniels, L.A., Cobiac, L., Giles, L.C., Whitehead, C., et al. (2002) Anthropometric Indices Predict Physical Function and Mobility in Older Australians: The Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Public Health Nutrition, 5, 655-662.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/PHN2002336

[33]   Prince, S.A., Jansen, I. and Tranmer, J.E. (2008) Influences of Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference on Physical Function in Older Persons with Heart Failure. Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 24, 905-911.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0828-282X(08)70697-4

[34]   Enoki, H., Kuzuya, M., Masuda, Y., Hirakawa, Y., Iwata, M., Hasegawa, J., et al. (2007) Anthropometric Measurements of Mid-Upper Arm as a Mortality Predictor for Community-Dwelling Japanese Elderly: The Nagoya Longitudinal Study of Frail Elderly (NLS-FE). Clinical Nutrition, 26, 597-604.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2007.06.008

[35]   Miller, M.D., Crotty, M., Giles, L.C., Bannerman, E., Whitehead, C., Cobiac, L., et al. (2002) Corrected Arm Muscle Area: An Independent Predictor of Long-Term Mortality in Community-Dwelling Older Adults? Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 50, 1272-1277.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1532-5415.2002.50316.x

[36]   Wijnhoven, H.A., van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M.A., Heymans, M.W., de Vet, H.C., Kruizenga, H.M., Twisk, J.W. and Visser, M. (2010) Low Mid-Upper Arm Circumference, Calf Circumference, and Body Mass Index and Mortality in Older Persons. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 65, 1107-1114.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glq100

[37]   Fried, L.P., Tangen, C., Walston, J., Newman, A.B., Hirsch, C., Gottdiener, J., et al. (2001) Frailty in Older Adults: Evidence for a Phenotype. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 56, M146-M156.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/56.3.M146

[38]   Cesari, M., Leeuwenburgh, C., Lauretani, F., Onder, G., Bandinelli, S., Maraldi, C., et al. (2006) Frailty Syndrome and Skeletal Muscle—Results from the InCHIANTI Study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 83, 1142-1148.

[39]   Landi, F., Onder, G., Russo, A., Liperoti, R., Tosato, M., Martone, A.M., et al. (2013) Calf Circumference, Frailty and Physical Performance among Older Adults Living in the Community. Clinical Nutrition, 33, 539-544.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2013.07.013

[40]   Caldas, C.P. (2003) Aging with Dependence: Family Needs and Responsibilities. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 19, 733-781.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X2003000300009

 
 
Top