GM  Vol.5 No.3 , July 2015
Analysis of Selected Oil Shale Samples from El-Lajjun, Central Jordan
Abstract: The centralJordanpart is rich in bituminous rocks that are known locally as oil shale (OS). These rocks were formed during the Maastrichtian-Palaeocene time. They belong to the Muwaqqar ChalkMarlformation (MCM). El-Lajjun OS deposit is located in relatively thinly populated area. This study presents the results of mineralogical, petrographical and geochemical analyses that are performed on selected surface outcrop oil shale samples from El-Lajjun area in central Jordan. Results show that El-Lajjun OS deposit is considered as a good source of OS resources since its organic matter is quite significant. The bulk rock material is made of carbonate.
Cite this paper: Alnawafleh, H. , Fraige, F. , (2015) Analysis of Selected Oil Shale Samples from El-Lajjun, Central Jordan. Geomaterials, 5, 77-84. doi: 10.4236/gm.2015.53008.

[1]   Ryan, R.C., Fowler, T.D., Beer, G.L. and Nair, V. (2010) Shell’s in Situ Conversion Process—From Laboratory to Field Pilots. In: Ogunsola, O.I., Hartstein, A.M. and Ogunsola, O., Eds., Oil Shale: A Solution to the Liquid Fuel Dilemma, ACS Symposium Series, American Chemical Society, Washington DC, 161-183.

[2]   Dyni, J.R. (2003) Geology and Resources of Some World Oil-Shale Deposits. Oil Shale, 20, 193-252.

[3]   Ellis, R. (2011) Oil Shale Guide. Oil Shale Information Centre, London.

[4]   Alnawafleh, H.M. and Fraige, F.Y. (2013) Characterization of South and Central Jordan Oil Shales. The European Journal of Scientific Research, 102, 589-595.

[5]   Alali, J. (2006) Jordan Oil Shale, Availability, Distribution, and Investment Opportunity. International Conference on Oils Shale: “Recent Trends in Oil Shale”, Amman, 7-9 November 2006, Paper No. rtos-A117.

[6]   Alqudah, M., Ali Hussein, M., Van den Boorn, S., Podlaha, O.G. and Mutterlose, J. (2015) Biostratigraphy and Depositional Setting of Maastrichtian—Eocene Oil Shales from Jordan. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 60, 87-104.

[7]   Abed, A. and Arouri, K. (2006) Characterization and Genesis of Oil Shales from Jordan. International Conference on Oils Shale: “Recent Trends in Oil Shale”, Amman, 7-9 November 2006, Paper No. rtos-A121.

[8]   Alnawafleh, H.M. (2007) Geological Factors Controlling the Variability of Maastrichtan Bituminous Rocks in Jordan. PhD Thesis, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham.

[9]   Jaber, J.O., Sladek, T.A., Mernitz, S. and Tarawneh, T.M. (2008) Future Policies and Strategies for Oil Shale Development in Jordan. Jordan Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 2, 31-44.

[10]   Pufahl, P.K., Grimm, K.A., Abed, A.M. and Sadaqah, R.M.Y. (2003) Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Phosphorites in Jordan: Implications for the Formation of a South Tethyan Phosphorite Giant. Sedimentary Geology, 161, 175-205.

[11]   Camoin, G., Bellion, Y., Dercourt, J., Guiraud, R., Lucas, J., Poisson, A., Ricou, L. and Vrielynck, B. (1993) Late Maastrichtian, (69.5-65 Ma). In: Dercourt, J., Ricou, L. and Vrirlynck, B., Eds., Atlas of Tethys Palaeoenvironmental Maps, Explanatory Notes, Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 179-196.

[12]   Almogi-Labin, A., Bein, A. and Sass, E. (1993) Late Cretaceous Upwelling System along the Southern Tethys Margin: Interrelationship between Productivity, Bottom Water Environments, and Organic Matter Preservation. Paleoceano-graphy, 8, 671-690.

[13]   Abed, A.M. (2013) The Eastern Mediterranean Phosphorite Giants: An Interplay between Tectonics and Upwelling. GeoArabia, 18, 67-94.

[14]   Butterlin, J., Vrielynck, B., Guiraud, R., Bignot, G., Colchen, M., Clermonte, J., Andreief, P., Bellion, Y., Benkhelil, I., Cavelier, C., Cornee, J., Mercier de Lepinay, B., Montenat, C., Moreau, C., Poisson, A. and Villa, J. (1993) Lutetian, (46-40 Ma). In: Dercourt, J., Ricou, L. and Vrirlynck, B., Eds., Atlas of Tethys Palaeoenvironmental Maps. Maps, BEICIP-FRANLAB, Rueil-Malmaisson, 307 p.

[15]   Powell, J. and Moh’d, B. (2011) Evolution of Cretaceous to Eocene Alluvial and Carbonate Platform Sequences in Central and South Jordan. GeoArabia, 16, 29-82.

[16]   Abed, A.M. and Sadaqah, R. (1998) Role of Oyster Bioherms in the Deposition and Accumulation of Highgrade Phosphorites in Central Jordan. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 68, 1009-1020.

[17]   Dill, H.G., Kus, J., Abed, A., Sachsenhofer, R.F. and Abul Khair, H. (2009) Diagenetic and Epigenetic Alteration of Cretaceous to Paleogene Organic Rich Sedimentary Successions in Northwestern Jordan, Typical of the Western Margin of the Arabian Plate. GeoArabia, 14, 101-140.

[18]   Abed, A.M., Arouri, K., Amiereh, B.S. and Al-Hawari, Z. (2009) Characterization and Genesis of Some Jordanian Oil Shales. Dirasat: Pure Sciences, 36, 7-17.

[19]   Alqudah, M., Ali Hussein, M., Van den Boorn, S., Podlaha, O.G. and Mutterlose, J. (2014) Calcareous Nannofossils Biostratigraphy of Oil Shales from Jordan. GeoArabia, 19, 117-140.

[20]   Ali Hussein, M., Alqudah, M., Van den Boorn, S., Podlaha, O.G. and Mutterlose, J. (2014) Ichnofabrics of Eocene Oil Shales from Central Jordan and Their Use in Paleoenvironmental Reconstructions. GeoArabia, 19, 143-158.

[21]   Ali Hussein, M. (2013) Sedimentology of Cretaceous-Paleogene Oil Shales from Jordan. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Ruhr-Universit?t Bochum, Bochum.

[22]   Stuben, D., Kramar, U., Berner, Z., Stinnesbeck, W., Keller, G. and Adatte, T. (2002) Trace Elements, Stable Isotopes, and Clay Mineralogy of the Elles II K-T Boundary Section in Tunisia: Indications for Sea Level Fluctuations and Primary Productivity. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 178, 321-345.

[23]   Minster, T., Yoffe, O., Nathan, Y. and Flexer, A. (1997) Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Paleoenvironments of Deposition of the Oil Shale Member in the Negev. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences, 46, 41-59.

[24]   Abed, A.M. (2000) The Geology of Jordan and Its Environment and Water. Publication of the Jordanian Geologists Association, Amman (in Arabic).

[25]   Hufnagel, H., Shmitz, H. and El-Kaysi, K. (1980) Investigation of the Al-Lujjun Oil Shale Deposits. BGR, Technical Cooperation Project No. 7821655, NRA and Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Hannover.

[26]   Murphy, A.E., Sageman, B.B. and Hollander, D.J. (2000) Black Shale Deposition and Faunal Overturn in the Devonian Appalachian Basin: Clastic Starvation, Seasonal Water-Column Mixing, and Efficient Biolimiting Nutrient Recycling. Paleoceanography, 15, 280-291.

[27]   Stow, D.A., Huc, A.Y. and Bertrand, P. (2001) Depositional Processes of Black Shales in Deep Water. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 18, 491-498.

[28]   Meyers, P.A. and Doose, H. (1999) Sources, Preservation, and Thermal Maturity of Organic Matter in Pliocene-Pleistocene Organic-Carbon-Rich Sediments of the Western Mediterranean Sea. In: Zahn, R., Comas, M.C. and Klaus, A., Eds., Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, Vol. 161, 383-390.