OJOG  Vol.5 No.10 , September 2015
The Use of a High Frequency Linear Transducer in the Assessment of Fetal Anatomy at the Routine 11 to 13 + 6-Week Scan among Chinese Population
ABSTRACT
Objectives: To determine if the use of high frequency linear transducer (HFLT) in addition to conventional curvilinear transducer (CCT) aids assessment of fetal cardiac and non-cardiac anatomy in the first trimester. Methods: Transabdominal CCT (4 - 8 MHz) followed by HFLT (9 MHz) was used to study prospectively the visualization rate of basic and optional anatomical structures according to international guidelines. McNemar and Chi-square test were used to compare correlated and independent proportions respectively. Postnatal outcomes were traced. Results: Comparing with CCT alone, additional use of HFLT did not improve the completion rate of basic anomaly screen (95.0% vs. 97.0%, p = 0.5) in the 101 women studied, but it improved the visualization rate of some optional structures including lens (57.4% vs. 73.3%), three-vessel view (3 VV) (17.8% vs. 48.5%), left ventricular outflow tract (17.8% vs. 51.5%), kidneys (8.9% vs. 47.5%), and umbilical artery (86.1% vs. 93.1%) (all p < 0.05). Favourable fetal position was associated with a better visualisation of four-chamber view and 3VV (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our findings supported that the use of HFLT in addition to CCT does not improve the completion of basic anomaly screen, nor does it achieve a high visualisation rate of different cardiac views in the first trimester.

Cite this paper
Mak, S. , Kou, K. , Poon, C. , Ma, W. and Leung, K. (2015) The Use of a High Frequency Linear Transducer in the Assessment of Fetal Anatomy at the Routine 11 to 13 + 6-Week Scan among Chinese Population. Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 5, 553-563. doi: 10.4236/ojog.2015.510079.
References
[1]   Salomon, L.J., Alfirevic, Z., Audibert, F., Kagan, K.O., Paladini, D., Yeo, G., et al. (2014) ISUOG Clinical Standards Committee: ISUOG Consensus Statement on the Impact of Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT) on Prenatal Ultrasound Practice. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology, 44, 122-123.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/uog.13393

[2]   Salomon, L.J., Alfirevic, Z., Bilardo, C.M., Chalouhi, G.E., Ghi, T., Kagan, K.O., et al. (2013) ISUOG Practice Guidelines: Performance of First-Trimester Fetal Ultrasound Scan. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology, 41, 102-113.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/uog.12342

[3]   Sepulveda, W., Wong, A.E. and Fauchon, D.E. (2011) Fetal Spinal Anomalies in a First-Trimester Sonographic Screening Program for Aneuploidy. Prenatal Diagnosis, 31, 107-114.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pd.2608

[4]   Hyett, J., Mogra, R. and Sonek, J. (2014) First Trimester Ultrasound Assessment for Fetal Aneuploidy. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 57, 142-158.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GRF.0000000000000013

[5]   Nicolaides, K.H. (2011) A Model for a New Pyramid of Prenatal Care Based on the 11 to 13 Weeks’ Assessment. Prenatal Diagnosis, 31, 3-6.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pd.2685

[6]   Sepulveda, W., Dezerega, V. and Be, C. (2004) First-Trimester Sonographic Diagnosis of Holoprosencephaly: Value of the “Butterfly” Sign. Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, 23, 761-765.

[7]   Souka, A.P., Pilalis, A., Kavalakis, Y., Kosmas, Y., Antsaklis, P. and Antsaklis, A. (2004) Assessment of Fetal Anatomy at the 11 - 14-Week Ultrasound Examination. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology, 24, 730-734.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/uog.1775

[8]   Ebrashy, A., El Kateb, A., Momtaz, M., El Sheikhah, A., Aboulghar, M.M., Ibrahim, M., et al. (2010) 13 - 14 Week Fetal Anatomy Scan: A 5-Year Prospective Study. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology, 35, 292-296.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/uog.7444

[9]   International Telecommunication Union (2000) Nomenclature of the Frequency and Wavelength Bands Used in Telecommunications.
http://www.itu.int/dms_pubrec/itu-r/rec/v/R-REC-V.431-7-200005-I!!PDF-E.pdf

[10]   Sauerbrei, E.E., Harrison, P.B., Ling, E. and Cooperberg, P.L. (1981) Neonatal Intracranial Pathology Demonstrated by High-Frequency Linear Array Ultrasound. Journal of Clinical Ultrasound, 9, 33-36.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcu.1870090109

[11]   Kim, J.H., Lee, J.Y., Baek, J.H., Eun, H.W., Kim, Y.J., Han, J.K., et al. (2015) High-Resolution Sonography for Distinguishing Neoplastic Gallbladder Polyps and Staging Gallbladder Cancer. American Journal of Roentgenology, 204, W150-W159.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.13.11992

[12]   Marciniak, C., Caldera, F., Welty, L., Lai, J., Lento, P., Feldman, E., et al. (2013) High-Resolution Median Nerve Sonographic Measurements: Correlations with Median Nerve Conduction Studies in Healthy Adults. Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, 32, 2091-2098.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7863/ultra.32.12.2091

[13]   Lombardi, C.M., Bellotti, M., Fesslova, V. and Cappellini, A. (2007) Fetal Echocardiography at the Time of the Nuchal Translucency Scan. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 29, 249-257.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/uog.3948

[14]   Bellotti, M., Fesslova, V., De Gasperi, C., Rognoni, G., Bee, V., Zucca, I., et al. (2010) Reliability of the First-Trimester Cardiac Scan by Ultrasound-Trained Obstetricians with High-Frequency Transabdominal Probes in Fetuses with Increased Nuchal Translucency. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 36, 272-278.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/uog.7685

[15]   Persico, N., Moratalla, J., Lombardi, C.M., Zidere, V., Allan, L. and Nicolaides, K.H. (2011) Fetal Echocardiography at 11 - 13 Weeks by Transabdominal High-Frequency Ultrasound. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 37, 296-301.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/uog.8934

[16]   Votino, C., Kacem, Y., Dobrescu, O., Dessy, H., Cos, T., Foulon, W., et al. (2012) Use of a High-Frequency Linear Transducer and MTI Filtered Colour Flow Mapping in the Assessment of Fetal Heart Anatomy at the Routine 11 to 13 + 6-Week Scan: A Randomized Trial. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 39, 145-151.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/uog.9015

[17]   American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine (2013) AIUM Practice Guideline for the Performance of Obstetric Ultrasound Examinations. Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, 32, 1083-1101.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7863/ultra.32.6.1083

[18]   BMUS Safety Group (2010) Guidelines for the Safe Use of Diagnostic Ultrasound Equipment. Ultrasound, 18, 52-59.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1258/ult.2010.100003

[19]   Salvesen, K., Lees, C., Abramowicz, J., Brezinka, C., Ter Har, G. and Marsal, K. (2011) ISUOG Statement on the Safe Use of Doppler in the 11 to 13 + 6-Week Fetal Ultrasound Examination. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 37, 628.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/uog.9026

[20]   Ihnatsenka, B. and Boezaar, A.P. (2010) Ultrasound: Basic Understanding and Learning the Language. International Journal of Shoulder Surgery, 4, 55-62.

[21]   Ishii, Y., Inamura, N., Kawazu, Y., Kayatani, F. and Arakawa, H. (2013) “I-Shaped” Sign in the Upper Mediastinum: A Novel Potential Marker for Antenatal Diagnosis of D-Transposition of the Great Arteries. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 41, 667-671.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/uog.12312

[22]   Clur, S.A., Ottenkamp, J. and Bilardo, C.M. (2009) The Nuchal Translucency and the Fetal Heart: A Literature Review. Prenatal Diagnosis, 29, 739-748.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pd.2281

[23]   Hyett, J.A., Moscoso, G. and Nicolaides, K.H. (1995) First-Trimester Nuchal Translucency and Cardiac Septal Defects in Fetuses with Trisomy 21. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 172, 1411-1413.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0002-9378(95)90470-0

[24]   Hyett, J.A., Perdu, M., Sharland, G.K., Snijders, R.S. and Nicolaides, K.H. (1997) Increased Nuchal Translucency at 10 - 14 Weeks of Gestation as a Marker for Major Cardiac Defects. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 10, 242-246.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-0705.1997.10040242.x

[25]   Chelemen, T., Syngelaki, A., Maiz, N., Allan, L. and Nicolaides, K.H. (2011) Contribution of Ductus Venosus Doppler in First-Trimester Screening for Major Cardiac Defects. Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy, 29, 127-134.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000322138

 
 
Top