JEAS  Vol.5 No.3 , September 2015
Removal from Water and Adsorption onto Natural Quartz Sand of Hydroquinone
Abstract: Hydroquinone (HQ) is the most important hydroxy aromatic compound which is produced on a large scale. Understanding its fate in the environment is therefore of primary importance to prevent its migration in the soil and/or the contamination of the aquatic ecosystems. Here we present a column based method to investigate the physicochemical processes controlling the removal from the aqueous phase and the adsorption onto natural quartz sand (NQS), of organic pollutant such as HQ molecules. We will focus on the interactions that occur between the organic pollutant and the NQS substrate. Thus, column reactors filled with NQS were used to investigate the influence of physicochemical parameters such as the ionic strength, the pH, the flow rate, and the nature of the electrolyte cation, on the HQ adsorption from water onto NQS substrate. The data indicate that, when divalent instead of monovalent cations, are present in the effluent water injection phase, and/or when the ionic strength of the effluent increases, the adsorbed HQ amount decreases. Similar decrease of the adsorbed HQ amount was also observed, at constant ionic strength, by increasing either, the pH from 3 to 9, the flow rate Q from 1 to 3 ml·mn-1, or by decreasing the HQ initial concentration, C0 from 30 to 6 mg·L-1. Further, large amount of the organic pollutant (up to 93 wt% of HQ molecules) was removed from the effluent water phase by using NQS column. The overall data seem to indicate that the adsorption of HQ molecules on the NQS surface is mainly controlled by electrostatic interaction forces occurring between the organic molecule polar groups and the inorganic matrix silanol groups.
Cite this paper: Ouachtak, H. , Akbour, R. , Douch, J. , Jada, A. and Hamdani, M. (2015) Removal from Water and Adsorption onto Natural Quartz Sand of Hydroquinone. Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences, 5, 131-143. doi: 10.4236/jeas.2015.53011.

[1]   Thiyam, U., Kuhlmann, A., Stöckmann, H. and Schwarz, K. (2004) Prospects of Rapeseed Oil By-Products with Respect to Antioxidative Potential. Comptes Rendus Chimie, 7, 611-616.

[2]   Colella, L.S., Armenante, P.M., Kafkewitz, D., Allen, S.J. and Balasundaram, V. (1998) Adsorption Isotherms for Chlorinated Phenols on Activated Carbons. Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 43, 573-579.

[3]   Kumar, A., Shashi, A. and Surendra, A. (2003) Adsorption of Resorcinol and Catechol on Granular Activated Carbon: Equilibrium and Kinetics. Carbon, 41, 3015-3025.

[4]   Schweigert, N., Zehnder, A.J.B. and Eggen, R.I.L. (2001) Chemical Properties of Catechols and Their Molecular Modes of Toxic Action in Cells, from Microorganisms to Mammals. Environmental Microbiology, 3, 81-91.

[5]   Gulley-Stahl, H., Hogan, P.A., Schmidt, W.L., Wall, S.J., Buhrlage, A. and Bullen, H.A. (2010) Surface Complexation of Catechol to Metal Oxides: An ATR-FTIR, Adsorption, and Dissolution Study. Environmental Science & Technology, 44, 4116-4121.

[6]   Suresh, S., Srivastava, V.C. and Mishra, I.M. (2011) Isotherm, Thermodynamics, Desorption, and Disposal Study for the Adsorption of Catechol and Resorcinol onto Granular Activated Carbon. Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 56, 811-818.

[7]   Richard, D., Schweich, D., Al Sawah, M.A. and de Bellefon, C. (2010) Depollution: A Matter of Catalyst and Reactor Design. Comptes Rendus Chimie, 13, 488-493.

[8]   Taha, S., Baroudi, M. and Halwani, J. (2011) pH Effect on the Retention of Hydroquinone Revealing Photographic Substances by Nanofiltration. Journal of Water Science, 24, 1-7.

[9]   Fritz, H., Reineke, W. and Schmidt, E. (1992) Toxicity of Chlorobenzene on Pseudomonas sp. Strain RHO1, a Chlorobenzene-Degrading Strain. Biodegradation, 2, 165-170.

[10]   Capasso, R., Evidente, A., Schivo, L., Orru, G., Marcialis, M.A. and Cristinzio, G. (1995) Antibacterial Polyphenols from Olive Oil Mill Waste Waters. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 79, 393-398.

[11]   Rahouti, M., Steiman, R., Seigle-Murandi, F. and Chritov, L.P. (1999) Growth of 1044 Strains and Species of Fungi on 7 Phenolic Lignin Model Compounds. Chemosphere, 38, 2549-2559.

[12]   Phutdhawong, W., Chowwanapoonpohn, S. and Buddhasukh, D. (2000) Electrocoagulation and Subsequent Recovery of Phenolic Compounds. Analytical Sciences, 16, 1083-1084.

[13]   Van Duursen, M.B.M., Sanderson, J.T., de Jong, P.C., Kraaij, M. and van den Berg, M. (2004) Phytochemicals Inhibit Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Activity in Cytosolic Fractions from Healthy Human Mammary Tissues: Implications for Catechol Estrogen-Induced DNA Damage. Toxicological Sciences, 81, 316-324.

[14]   Kumar, A., Kumar, S. and Kumar, S. (2005) Biodegradation Kinetics of Phenol and Catechol Using Pseudomonas putida MTCC 1194. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 22, 151-159.

[15]   Stoilova, I., Krastanov, A., Stanchev, V., Daniel, D., Gerginova, M. and Alexieva, Z. (2006) Biodegradation of High Amounts of Phenol, Catechol, 2,4-Dichlorophenol and 2,6-Dimethoxyphenol by Aspergillus awamori Cells. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 39, 1036-1041.

[16]   Latkar, M., Swaminathan, K. and Chakrabarti, T. (2003) Kinetics of Anaerobic Biodegradation of Resorcinol Catechol and Hydroquinone in Upflow Fixed Film-Fixed Bed Reactors. Bioresource Technology, 88, 69-74.

[17]   Subramanyam, R. and Mishra, I.M. (2007) Biodegradation of Catechol (2-Hydroxy Phenol) Bearing Wastewater in an UASB Reactor. Chemosphere, 69, 816-824.

[18]   Subramanyam, R. and Mishra, I.M. (2008) Co-Degradation of Resorcinol and Catechol in an UASB Reactor. Bioresource Technology, 99, 4147-4157.

[19]   Nasr, B., Abdellatif, G., Canizares, P., Saez, C., Lobato, J. and Rodrigo, M.A. (2005) Electrochemical Oxidation of Hydroquinone, Resorcinol, and Catechol on Boron-Doped Diamond Anodes. Environmental Science & Technology, 39, 7234-7239.

[20]   Chien, S.W.C., Chen, H.L., Wang, M.C. and Seshaiah, K. (2009) Oxidative Degradation and Associated Mineralization of Catechol, Hydroquinone and Resorcinol Catalyzed by Birnessite. Chemosphere, 74, 1125-1133.

[21]   Araña, J., Fernández Rodríguez, C., González Díaz, O., Herrera Melián, J.A. and Pérez Peña, J. (2005) Role of Cu in the Cu-TiO2 Photocatalytic Degradation of Dihydroxybenzenes. Catalysis Today, 101, 261-266.

[22]   Ahn, M.Y., Martinez, C.E., Archibald, D.D., Zimmerman, A.R., Bollag, J.M. and Dec, J. (2006) Transformation of Catechol in the Presence of a Laccase and Birnessite. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 38, 1015-1020.

[23]   Mohamed, F.S., Khater, W.A. and Mostafa, M.R. (2006) Characterization and Phenols Sorptive Properties of Carbons Activated by Sulphuric Acid. Chemical Engineering Journal, 116, 47-52.

[24]   Richard, D., Delgado Núñez, M.L. and Schweich, D. (2009) Adsorption of Complex Phenolic Compounds on Active Charcoal: Adsorption Capacity and Isotherms. Chemical Engineering Journal, 148, 1-7.

[25]   Richard, D., Delgado Núñez, M.L. and Schweich, D. (2010) Adsorption of Complex Phenolic Compounds on Active Charcoal: Breakthrough Curves. Chemical Engineering Journal, 158, 213-219.

[26]   Suresh, S., Srivastava, V.C. and Mishra, I.M. (2011) Adsorption of Hydroquinone in Aqueous Solution by Granulated Activated Carbon. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 137, 1145-1157.

[27]   Suresh, S., Srivastava, V.C. and Mishra, I.M. (2012) Adsorptive Removal of Aniline by Granular Activated Carbon from Aqueous Solutions with Catechol and Resorcinol. Environmental Technology, 33, 773-781.

[28]   Namasivayam, C. and Sumithra, S. (2004) Adsorptive Removal of Catechol on Waste Fe(III)/Cr(III) Hydroxide: Equilibrium and Kinetics Study. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 43, 7581-7587.

[29]   Arana, J., Melian, E.P., Lopez, V.M.R., Alonso, A.P., Rodriguez, J.M.D., Diaz, O.G. and Pena, J.P. (2007) Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenol and Phenolic Compounds. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 146, 520-528.

[30]   Shakir, K., Ghoneimy, H.F., Elkafrawy, A.F., Beheir, S.G. and Refaat, M. (2008) Removal of Catechol from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption onto Organophilic-Bentonite. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 150, 765-773.

[31]   Juang, R.S., Lin, S.H. and Tsao, K.H. (2004) Sorption of Phenols from Water in Column Systems Using Surfactant-Modified Montmorillonite. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 269, 46-52.

[32]   Srivastava, V.C., Swamy, M.M., Mall, I.D., Prasad, B. and Mishra, I.M. (2006) Adsorptive Removal of Phenol by Bagasse Fly Ash and Activated Carbon: Equilibrium, Kinetics and Thermodynamics. Colloids and Surfaces A, 272, 89- 104.

[33]   Suresh, S., Vijayalakshmi, G., Rajmohan, B. and Subbaramaiah, V. (2012) Adsorption of Benzene Vapor onto Activated Biomass from Cashew Nut Shell: Batch and Column Study. Recent Patents on Chemical Engineeringe, 5, 116-133.

[34]   Yildiz, N., Gonulsen, R., Koyuncu, H. and Calimli, A. (2005) Adsorption of Benzoic Acid and Hydroquinone by Organically Modified Bentonites. Colloids and Surfaces A, 260, 87-94.

[35]   Douch, J., Hamdani, M., Fessi, H. and Elaissari, A. (2009) Acid-Base Behavior of a Colloidal Clays Fraction Extracted from Natural Quartz Sand: Effect of Permanent Surface Charge. Colloids and Surfaces A, 338, 51-60.

[36]   Jada, A., Ait Akbour, R. and Douch, J. (2006) Surface Charge and Adsorption from Water onto Quartz Sand of Humic Acid. Chemosphere, 64, 1287-1295.

[37]   Jada, A., Debih, H. and Khodja, M. (2006) Montmorillonite Surface Properties Modifications by Asphaltenes Adsorption. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 52, 305-316.

[38]   Geng, Q.J., Guo, Q.J., Cao, C.Q. and Wang, L.T. (2008) Investigation into NanoTiO2/ACSPCR for Decomposition of Aqueous Hydroquinone. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 47, 2561-2568.

[39]   Ait Akbour, R., Douch, J., Hamdani, M. and Schmitz, P. (2002) Transport of Kaolinite Colloids through Quartz Sand: Influence of Humic Acid, Ca2+, and Trace Metals. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 253, 1-8.

[40]   Bouna, L., Rhouta, B., Amjoud, M., Jada, A., Maury, F., Daoudi, L. and Senocq, F. (2010) Correlation between Eletrokinetic Mobility and Ionic Dyes Adsorption of Moroccan Stevensite. Applied Clay Science, 48, 527-530.

[41]   Hameed, B.H., Mahmoud, D.K. and Ahmad, A.L. (2008) Sorption Equilibrium and Kinetics of Basic Dye from Aqueous Solution Using Banana Stalk Waste. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 158, 499-506.

[42]   Banat, F.A., Al-Bashir, B., Al-Asheh, S. and Hayajneh, O. (2000) Adsorption of Phenol by Bentonite. Environmental Pollution, 107, 391-398.

[43]   Yildiz, N., Gonulsen, R., Koyuncu, H. and Calimli, A. (2005) Adsorption of Benzoic Acid and Hydroquinone by Organically Modified Bentonites. Colloids and Surfaces A, 260, 87-94.

[44]   Halhouli, K.A., Darwish, N.A. and Al-Jahmany, Y. (1997) Effects of Temperature and Inorganic Salts on the Adsorption of Phenol from Multicomponent Systems onto a Decolorizing Carbon. Separation Science and Technology, 32, 3027-3036.

[45]   Namasivayam, C. and Kavitha, D. (2003) Adsorptive Removal of 2-Chlorophenol by Low-Cost Coir Pith Carbon. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 98, 257-274.

[46]   Hung, J., Huang, K. and Yan, C. (2009) Application of an Easily Water-Compatible Hypercrosslinked Polymeric Adsorbent for Efficient Removal of Catechol and Resorcinol in Aqueous Solution. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 167, 69-74.

[47]   Ait Akbour, R., Amal, H., Ait Addi, A., Douch, J., Jada, A. and Hamdani, M. (2013) Transport and Retention of Humic Acid through Natural Quartz Sand: Influence of the Ionic Strength and the Nature of Divalent Cation. Colloids and Surfaces A, 436, 589-598.

[48]   Jada, A. and Ait Akbour, R. (2012) Transport of Basic Colorant through Quartz Sand. Journal of Colloid Science and Biotechnology, 1, 26-32.

[49]   Weidenhaupt, A., Arnold, C., Muller, S., Haderlein, S.B. and Schwarzenbach, R.P. (1997) Sorption of Organotin Biocides to Mineral Surfaces. Environmental Science & Technology, 31, 2603-2609.

[50]   Stumm, W. and Morgan, J.J. (1996) Aquatic Chemistry, Chemical Equilibria and Rates in Natural Waters. 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York.

[51]   Benkli, Y.E., Can, M.F., Turan, M. and Celik, M.S. (2005) Modification of Organo-Zeolite Surface for the Removal of Reactive Azo Dyes in Fixed-Bed Reactors. Water Research, 39, 487-493.

[52]   Ni, W., Liang, F.X., Liu, J.G., Qu, X.Z., Zhang, C.L., Li, J.L., Wang, Q. and Yang, Z.Z. (2011) Polymer Nanotubes toward Gelating Organic Chemicals. Chemical Communications, 47, 4727-4729.