ABSTRACT This paper examined users’ preferences for landscape design of grounds and spaces surrounding hospitals, in order to assess how they perceived the landscape facilities so as to make future open spaces of hospitals suitable to users’ needs. The method of the research was based on quantifying a questionnaire survey of a representative sample of personnel (doctors, nurses, administrative staff and medical students) by using the stratified sample research programme that was carried out in March 2007 at the University Hospital of the city of Alexandroupolis, situated in northeastern Greece. The results of study show that users of hospital cared about footpaths, resting areas, social and public spaces, personal spaces, water features and a dominant, limited range of colors in landscaping. They also require environment that supports the principles and specifications of Therapeutic Hospital Gardens. Based on the results of this research, (a) interventions have been proposed (e.g., footpaths, resting areas, social and public spaces, personal spaces, water features and a dominant, limited range of colors in landscaping), and (b) the principles and specifications for the landscape design of Therapeutic Hospital Gardens have also been evaluated and have been redefined in the light of the study findings. These results also provide the opportunity for health care decision makers to apply and to incorporate user considerations into overall landscape design for current and future health care programs.
Cite this paper
nullA. Petros and J. Georgi, "Landscape Preference Evaluation for Hospital Environmental Design," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 2 No. 5, 2011, pp. 639-647. doi: 10.4236/jep.2011.25073.
 E. S. Van Leeuwen, R. Vreeker and C. A. Rodenburg, “A Framework for Quality of Life Assessment of Urban Green Areas in Europe: An Application to District Park Reudnitz Leipzig,” International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management, Vol. 6, No. 1-2, 2006, pp. 111-122. doi:10.1504/IJETM.2006.008256
 K. J. Gaston, P. H. Warren, K. Thompson and R. M. Smith, “Urban Domestic Gardens (IV): The Extent of the Resource and Its Associated Fearures,” Biodiversity Conservation, Vol. 14, No. 14, 2005, pp. 3327-3349.
 R. M. Smith, K. J. Gaston, P. H. Warren and K. Thompson, “Urban Domestic Gardens (V): Relationships between Land Cover Composition, Housing and Landscape,” Landscape Ecology, Vol. 20, No. 2, 2005, pp. 235-253. doi:10.1007/s10980-004-3160-0
 K. M. Beauchemin and P. Hays, “Sunny Hospital Rooms Expediate Recovery from Severe and Refractory Depressions,” Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 40, No. 1-2, 1996, pp. 49-51. doi:10.1016/0165-0327(96)00040-7
 C. Cooper-Marcus and M. Barnes, “Healing Gardens: Therapeutic Benefits and Design Recommendations,” John Wiley, New York, 1999.
 R. S. Ulrich, “Effects of Interior Design on Wellness: Theory and Recent Scientific Research,” Journal of Healthcare Interior Design, Vol. 3, 1991, pp. 97-109.
 J. W. Varni, T. M. Burwinkle, P. Dickinson, S. A. Sherman, P. Dixon, J. A. Ervice, et al., “Evaluation of the Built Environment at a Children’s Convalescent Hospital: Development of the Peds QLTM Parent and Staff Satisfaction Measures for Pediatric Healthcare Facilities,” Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, Vol. 25, 2004, pp. 10-25.
 S. Whitehouse, J. W. Varni and M. Seid, C. Cooper-Marcus, M. J. Ensberg, J. R. Jacobs, et al., “Evaluating a Children’s Hospital Garden Environment: Utilization and Consumer Satisfaction,” Journal of Environmental Psychology, Vol. 21, 2001, pp. 301-314.
 R. S. Ulrich, “View through a Window May Influence Recovery from Surgery,” Science, Vol. 224, No. 4647, 1984, pp. 420-421. doi:10.1126/science.6143402
 A. B. Stein, “Thoughts Occasioned by the Old Testament,” In: M. Francis and R. T. Hester, Eds., The Meaning of Gardens, The MIT Press, Mass, 1990, pp. 38-45.
 S. Ananth, “Building Healing Spaces Optimal Healing Environments,” Explore, Vol. 4, No. 6, 2008, p. 393.
 S. B. Warner Jr., “The Periodic Rediscoveries of Restorative Gardens: 1100 to the Present,” In: M. Francis, P. Lindsey and J. S. Rice, Eds., The Healing Dimensions of People-Plant Relations, Proceedings of a Research Symposium, Davis, University of California, 1995, pp 5-12.
 C. Cooper-Marcus and M. Barnes, “Gardens in Healthcare Facilities: Uses, Therapeutic Benefits and Design Recommendations,” The Center for Health Design, Martinez, 1995.
 B. L. Fredrickson and R. W. Levenson, “Positive Emotions Speed Recovery from the Cardiovascular Sequelae of Negative Emotions,” Cognitive Emotions, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1998, pp. 191-220. doi:10.1080/026999398379718
 N. Sachs, “The Therapeutic Value of Outdoor Space in Psychiatric Healthcare Facilities,” MLA Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 1999.
 T. Hartig, A. Book, J. Garvill, T. Olsson and T. Garling, “Environmental Influences on Psychological Restoration,” Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, Vol. 37, No. 4, 1995, pp. 378-393.
 R. Parsons and T. Hartig, “Environmental Psychophysiology,” In: J. T. Cacioppo, L. G. Tassinary, G. G. Berntson, Eds., Handbook of Psychophysiology, 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2000, pp. 815-846.
 A. Van den Berg, S. L. Koole and N. Y. Van der Wulp, “Environmental Preference and Restoration: How Are They Related?” Journal of Environmental Psychology, Vol. 23, No. 2, 2003, pp. 135-146.
 S. A. Sherman, J. W. Varni, R. S. Ulrich and V. L. Malcarne, “Post-Occupancy Evaluation of Healing Gardens in a Pediatric Cancer Center,” Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 73, No. 2-3, 2005, pp. 167-183.
 R. Kaplan, “The Nature of the View from Home: Psychological Benefits,” Environmental Behavior, Vol. 33, No. 4, 2001, pp. 507-542.
 M. P. Leiter, P. Harvie and C. Frizzell, “The Correspondence of Patient Satisfaction and Nurse Burnout,” Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 47, No. 10, 1998, pp. 1611- 1617. doi:10.1016/S0277-9536(98)00207-X
 C. H. Douglas and M. Douglas, “Patient-Friendly Hospital Environments: Exploring the Patients’ Perspective,” Health Expectations, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2004, pp. 61-73.
 R. Kaplan and S. Kaplan, “The Experience of Nature: A Psychological Perspective,” Cambridge University Press, 1989.
 R. S. Ulrich, “A Theory of Supportive Design for Healthcare Facilities,” Journal of Healthcare Design, Vol. 9, 1997, pp. 3-7.
 T. Hancock, “Creating Health and Health Promoting Hospitals: A Worthy Challenge for the Twenty-First Century,” International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance incorporating Leadership in Health Services, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1999, pp. 8-19.
 S. Francis, R. Glanville, A. Noble and P. Scher, “50 Years of Ideas in Health Care Buildings,” The Nuffield Trust, London, 1999.
 M. Riediker, H. S. Koren, “The Importance of Environmental Exposures to Physical, Mental and Social Well- Being,” International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, Vol. 207, No. 3, 2004, pp. 193-201.
 R. Kaplan and S. Kaplan, “Cognition and Environment: Functioning in an Uncertain World,” Praeger Publishers, New York, 1983.
 R. S. Ulrich, “Visual Landscape Preference: A Model and Application,” Man-Environment Systems, Vol. 7, No. 5, 1977, pp. 279-293.
 H. W. Schroeder, “Preference and Meaning of Arboretum Landscapes: Combining Quantitative and Qualitative data,” In: A. Sinha, Ed., Readings in Environmental Psychology and Landscape Perception, Academic Press, San Diego, 1995.
 R. B. Bechtel, “Environment and Behavior: An Introduction,” Sage Publications, Inc, 1997, p. 709.
 C. Cooper Marcus, “Places People Take Their Problems,” In: M. Francis, P. Lindsey and J. S. Rice, Eds., The Healing Dimensions of People-plant Relations: Proceedings of a Research Symposium, University of California, Davis, 1995.
 S. F. Verderber, “Dimensions of Person—Window Tran- sactions in the Hospital Environment,” Environment and Behavior, Vol. 18, No. 4, 1986, pp. 450-466.
 D. M. Crapo and M. Chubb, “Recreation Area Day-Use Investigation Techniques: A Study of Survey Methodology”, Techical Report, Michigan State University, Vol. 6, 1969, p. 118.
 N. Eleftheriadis, N. J. Georgi, S. Athanasiadis and E. Koutsukidou, “Forest Recreation and Landscape Architecture,” T.E.I. Kavala, Drama (in Greek), 2002.
 T. C. Daniel and J. Vinning, “Methodological Issues in Assessment of Landscape Quality,” Behavior and the Natural Environment, Vol. 2, 1983, pp. 39-83.
 S. Kaplan, “Where Cognition and Affect Meet: A Theoretical Analysis of Preference,” In: P. Bart, Ed., Knowledge for Design, Washington D.C., 1982, pp. 183-188.
 S. Amir and E. Gidalizon, “Expert Based Method for the Evaluation of Visual Absorption Capacity of the Landscape,” Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 30, 1990, pp. 251-263. doi:10.1016/0301-4797(90)90005-H
 M. C. Dunn, “Landscape with Photographs: Testing the Preference Approach to Landscape Evaluation,” Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 4, 1976, pp. 15-26.
 M. Loukakis, “Cluster Analysis. Algorithmic Approach in the Frames of Theory of Histograms,” Thessaloniki, 1982.
 Ch. Zacharopoulou, “Statistics. Methods—Application Part A,” Giachouli & Son, Thessaloniki, 1993.
 Ch. Damianos, “Introduction of the Theory of Sampling Method,” Athens (in Greek), 1986.
 J. N. Georgi and D. Dimitriou, “The Contribution of Urban Green Spaces to the Improvement of Environment in cities: Case Study of Chania,” Building and Environment, Greece, 2010.
 P. Anthopoulos, “Evaluation and Landscape Design of the Surrounding Site of Hospitals. Case Study: General Prefecture University Hospital of Alexandroupolis,” M.Sc. Thesis, Hellenic Open University, Patra, 2003, p. 150 (in Greek).
 Picker Institute and Center for Health Design, “Assessing the Built Environment from the Patient and Family Perspective: Health Care Design Action Kit,” The Center for Health Design, Walnut Creek, 1999.
 J. English, K. Wilson and S. Keller-Olaman Health, “Health Healing and Recovery: Therapeutic Landscapes and the Everyday Lives of Breast Cancer Survivors,” Social Science & Medicine, Vol. 67, No. 9, 2008, pp. 68-78.